Endnotes

{1} 16 U.S.C. §§ 431-433 (1994).

{2} 16 U.S.C. §§ 461-467 (1994).

{3} Under the act's authority, the Secretary of the Interior established the National Historic Landmark Program, under which properties of national significance are designated as National Historic Landmarks.

{4} Special Committee on Historic Preservation, U.S. Conference of Mayors, "With Heritage So Rich" (1966).

{5} 16 U.S.C. §§ 470-470w-6 (1994).

{6} 16 U.S.C. § 470(b)(6) (1994).

{7} 42 U.S.C. § 4331(b)(4)(1994); see 40 C.F.R. § 1502.16(g), 1508.27(b)(3), (8) (1995).

{8} The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1966, Pub. L. No. 89-574, 80 Stat. 766 (1966) (codified at 23 U.S.C. § 138 (1994)) and the Department of Transportation Act, Pub. L. No. 89-670, 80 Stat. 931 (1966) (codified at 49 U.S.C. § 303 (1994)). The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991, Pub. L. No. 102-240, 105 Stat. 1914 (1991) (codified at 23 U.S.C. §§ 101(a) and 133 (1994)), requires that at least 10 percent of funds apportioned to a State for its Surface Transportation Program be used for "transportation enhancement activities," which include historic preservation projects, as well as other environmentally beneficial activities.

{9} See Historical and Archeological Data Preservation Act of 1974, 16 U.S.C. §§ 469-469c (1994); Archeological Resources Protection Act of 1979, 16 U.S.C. §§ 470aa-470mm (1994); Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act of 1990, 25 U.S.C. §§ 3001-3013 (1994).

{10} Exec. Order No. 11,593, 3 C.F.R. 154 (1971), reprinted in 16 U.S.C. § 470 note (1994).

{11} Exec. Order No. 13,006, 61 Fed. Reg. 26,071 (1996).

{12} Exec. Order No. 13,007, 61 Fed. Reg. 26,711 (1996).

{13} This report does not include NHPA cases that resulted in settlements rather than court opinions.

{14} 16 U.S.C. §§ 470, 470-l (1994).

{15} 16 U.S.C. § 470a(a)(1)(A) (1994).

{16} 36 C.F.R. pts. 60, 63 (1995).

{17} 16 U.S.C. §§ 470a, 470b (1994).

{18} 16 U.S.C. § 470d (1994).

{19} See 26 U.S.C. §§ 170(h)(4)(A)(iv), 170(h)(4)(B) (1994).

{20} 16 U.S.C. § 470a(b)(1) (1994).

{21} 16 U.S.C. § 470a(b)(3) (1994).

{22} 16 U.S.C. § 470a(c) (1994); 36 C.F.R. pt. 61 (1995).

{23} 16 U.S.C. § 470(a)(d)(2) (1994).

{24} 16 U.S.C. § 470a(e) (1994).

{25} FY 1995 Historic Preservation Fund Appropriation, National Park Service, Heritage Preservation Service Program.

{26} 16 U.S.C. § 470i (1994).

{27} 16 U.S.C. § 470i(a) (1994).The size and composition of the Council has been periodically adjusted.

{28} 16 U.S.C. § 470i (1994).

{29} 16 U.S.C. § 470j (1994).

{30} 16 U.S.C. § 470 (1994).

{31} Pub. L. No. 94-222, 90 Stat. 1320 (1976) (codified at 16 U.S.C. § 470a(e)(1)-(2) (1994)).

{32} Pub. L. No. 96-515, 94 Stat. 2987 (1980) (codified at 16 U.S.C. § 470h-2 (1994)).

{33} Pub. L. No. 102-575, 106 Stat. 4753 (1992).

{34} 16 U.S.C. §§ 470a(d) and 470w(4) (1994).

{35} 16 U.S.C. § 470h-2(a)(2) (1994).

{36} 16 U.S.C. § 470h-2(k) (1994).

{37} 16 U.S.C. § 470w-3 (1994).

{38} 16 U.S.C. § 470h-2(l) (1994).

{39} 16 U.S.C. § 470w (1994).

{40} 16 U.S.C. § 470f (1994).

41{41} Id.

{42} If a State or local agency is acting pursuant to a delegation, then that agency is required to comply with Section 106 as if it were a Federal agency. See 16 U.S.C. § 470w(7)(D) (1994); 36 C.F.R. § 800.2(b) (1995).

{43} Pub. L. No. 94-422, § 201, 90 Stat. 1313 (1976).

{44} In 1995, the Council received approximately 3,500 requests for comment.

{45} 16 U.S.C. § 470s (1994).

{46} 36 C.F.R. pt. 800 (1995).

{47} In 1992 Congress gave the Council specific authority, in Section 211, to implement Section 106 in its entirety. 16 U.S.C. § 470s (1994). Prior to that time, some agencies interpreted the Council's authority as being limited to implementing regulations only on how the Council would comment on undertakings.

{48} 16 U.S.C. § 470h-2 (1994).

{49} 16 U.S.C. § 470h-2(a)(1) (1994).

{50} 16 U.S.C. § 470h-2(d) (1994).

{51} A National Historic Landmark is a property of national historic significance. All landmarks are designated by the Secretary of the Interior under the Historic Sites, Buildings, and Antiquities Act of 1935, 16 U.S.C. §§ 461-467 (1994), and are listed in the National Register as a result of Section 101 of the National Historic Preservation Act, 16 U.S.C. § 470a(a)(1)(B) (1994). See also 36 C.F.R. pt. 85 (1995).

{52} 16 U.S.C. § 470h-2(f) (1994).

{53} 16 U.S.C. § 470h-2(a)(2), (k), (l) (1994).

{54} 16 U.S.C. § 470h-2(a)(2) (1994).

{55} 16 U.S.C. § 470h-2(a)(2)(E)(ii) (1994).

{56} 16 U.S.C. § 470h-2(k) (1994). This provision does allow assistance if, after consultation with the Council, the Federal agency determines that circumstances justify granting the assistance.

{57} 16 U.S.C. § 470h-2(l) (1994).

{58} Id.

{59} 16 U.S.C. § 470a(g) (1994). In addition, the Secretary of the Interior must consult with the Secretaries of Agriculture and Defense, the Smithsonian Institution, and the Administrator of GSA to develop specific standards for the preservation of federally owned and controlled properties. 16 U.S.C. § 470a(h) (1994).

{60} 53 Fed. Reg. 4,727 (Feb. 17, 1988).

{61} 16 U.S.C. § 470s (1994).

{62} 16 U.S.C. § 470w(7) (1994); 36 C.F.R. § 800.2(o) (1995).

{63} 36 C.F.R. § 800.4(a) (1995).

{64} 36 C.F.R. § 60.4 (1995).

{65} 36 C.F.R. § 800.2(e) (1995); Boyd v. Roland, 789 F.2d 347 (5th Cir. 1986); Colorado River Indian Tribes v. Marsh, 605 F. Supp. 1425 (C.D. Cal. 1985); Hough v. Marsh, 557 F. Supp. 74 (D. Mass. 1982). See also Pueblo of Sandia v. United States, 50 F.3d 856 (10th Cir. 1995).

{66} 36 C.F.R. § 800.4(a)(1)(1995).

{67} 36 C.F.R. § 800.4(a)(2), (b) (1995).

{68} 36 C.F.R. § 800.4(c)(2) (1995). The agency may complete the Section 106 process prior to seeking a determination of eligibility from the Secretary.

{69} 36 C.F.R. § 800.4(c)(4) (1995).

{70} 36 C.F.R. § 800.5 (1995).

{71} 36 C.F.R. § 800.5(b) (1995).

{72} 36 C.F.R. § 800.5(d) (1995).

{73} 36 C.F.R. § 800.5(e) (1995).

{74} 36 C.F.R. § 800.5(e) (1995).

{75} 36 C.F.R. § 800.5(e)(4) (1995).

{76} 16 U.S.C. § 470h-2(l) (1994); 36 C.F.R. § 800.6(c)(1) (1995)

{77} 36 C.F.R. § 800.13 (1995).

{78} 36 C.F.R. § 800.13(e) (1995).

{79} 36 C.F.R. § 800.6(b) (1995). Failure to reach agreement generally occurs less than a half-dozen times each year.

{80} 16 U.S.C. § 470h-2(l) (1994).

{81} See, e.g., 42 U.S.C. § 5304 (1994); 16 U.S.C. § 470w(7)(D) (1994).

{82} Vieux Carré Property Owners, Residents & Assocs. v. Brown, 875 F.2d 435 (5th Cir. 1989), cert. denied, 493 U.S. 1020 (1990); Ely v. Velde (Ely I), 451 F.2d 1130 (4th Cir. 1971).

{83} See Miltenberger v. C. & O. Ry., 450 F.2d 971 (4th Cir. 1971) (AMTRAK not a Federal agency).

{84} Committee to Save the Fox Bldg. v. Birmingham Branch of the Fed. Reserve Bank, 497 F. Supp. 504 (N.D. Ala. 1980).

{85} National Trust for Historic Preservation v. Federal Deposit Ins. Corp., No. 93-0904 (D.D.C. May 7, 1993), aff'd, 995 F.2d 238 (D.C. Cir.), vacated, 5 F.3d 567 (D.C. Cir. 1993), reinstated in part, 21 F.3d 469 (D.C. Cir.), cert. denied, 115 S. Ct. 683 (1994). But see Preservation League v. Lake Placid Land Corp., No. 92-CV-148 (N.D.N.Y. Feb. 9, 1993) (FSLIC, predecessor to FDIC, entered into MOA when it acquired historic property from distressed financial institution).

{86} Chelsea Neighborhood Ass'n v. United States Postal Serv., 516 F.2d 378 (2d Cir. 1975).

{87} 42 U.S.C. § 5304 (1994). Similar authorities are found in other HUD programs.

{88} See North Oakland Voters Alliance v. City of Oakland, No. C-92-0743 MHP (N.D. Cal. Oct. 6, 1992); Natural Resources Defense Council v. City of New York, 528 F. Supp. 1245 (S.D.N.Y. 1981), aff'd, 672 F.2d 292 (2d Cir.), cert. dismissed, 456 U.S. 920 (1982); National Center for Preservation Law v. Landrieu, 496 F. Supp. 716 (D.S.C.), aff'd per curiam, 635 F.2d 324 (4th Cir. 1980).

{89} 24 C.F.R. § 570.200(a)(4) (1995).

{90} 36 C.F.R. § 800.2(b) (1995); see also 16 U.S.C. § 470w(7)(D) (1994).

{91} 36 C.F.R. § 800.1(c)(1)(i) (1995); Citizens' Defense Fund v. Gallagher, [1979] 9 Envtl. L. Rep. (Envtl. L. Inst.) 20,420 (D. Mont. Nov. 3, 1978).

{92} Hall County Historical Soc'y v. Georgia Dep't of Transp., 447 F. Supp. 741 (N.D. Ga. 1978).

{93} El Rancho La Comunidad v. United States, No. 90-113 (D.N.M. May 21, 1991); Illinois Commerce Comm'n v. Interstate Commerce Comm'n, 848 F.2d 1246 (D.C. Cir. 1988), cert. denied, 488 U.S. 1004 (1989).

{94} Id.

{95} El Rancho La Comunidad v. United States, No. 90-113 (D.N.M. May 21, 1991) (Rural Electrification Administration subject to suit when rural cooperative on which it relied failed to properly carry out Section 106 obligations).

{96} 16 U.S.C. § 470w(7) (1994).

{97} 36 C.F.R. § 800.2(o) (1995).

{98} Barcelo v. Brown, 478 F. Supp. 646 (D.P.R. 1979), aff'd in part, rev'd in part, 643 F.2d 835 (1st Cir. 1981), rev'd on other grounds sub nom. Weinberger v. Barcelo, 456 U.S. 305 (1982) (Navy bombing); Aluli v. Brown, 437 F. Supp. 602 (D. Haw. 1977), aff'd in part, rev'd in part, 602 F.2d 876 (9th Cir. 1979) (Navy bombing). See also Catholic Action of Hawaii/Peace Educ. Proj. v. Brown, 468 F. Supp. 190 (D. Hawaii 1979), rev'd on other grounds, 643 F.2d 569 (9th Cir. 1980), rev'd sub nom. Weinberger v. Catholic Action of Hawaii/Peace Educ. Proj., 454 U.S. 139 (1981) (Navy munitions facility).

{99} Birmingham Realty Co. v. General Servs. Admin., 497 F. Supp. 1377 (N.D. Ala. 1980).

{100} Puerto Rico v. Muskie, 507 F. Supp. 1035 (D.P.R.), injunction vacated sub nom. Marquez-Colon v. Reagan, 668 F.2d 611 (1st Cir. 1981).

{101} West Branch Valley Flood Protection Ass'n v. Stone, 820 F. Supp. 1 (D.D.C. 1993); Sequoyah v. Tenn. Valley Auth., 620 F.2d 1159 (6th Cir.), cert. denied, 449 U.S. 953 (1980).

{102} Committee to Save the Fox Bldg. v. Birmingham Branch of the Fed. Reserve Bank, 497 F. Supp. 504 (N.D. Ala.1980); Don't Tear It Down, Inc. v. General Servs. Admin., 401 F. Supp. 1194 (D.D.C. 1975).

{103} Daingerfield Island Protective Soc'y v. Babbitt, 40 F.3d 442 (D.C. Cir. 1994); Gettysburg Battlefield Preservation Ass'n v. Gettysburg College, 799 F. Supp. 1571 (M.D. Pa. 1992), aff'd, 989 F.2d 487 (3d Cir. 1993).

{104} Ferris v. Secretary of the United States Dep't of Transp., No. 89-C 779-C (W.D. Wis. 1990).

{105} Attakai v. United States, 746 F. Supp. 1395 (D. Ariz. 1990).

{106} Pueblo of Sandia v.United States, 50 F.3d 856 (10th Cir. 1995).

{107} Indiana Coal Council v. Lujan, 774 F. Supp. 1385 (D.D.C. 1991), vacated in part and appeal dismissed, No. 91-5397 (D.C. Cir. Apr. 26, 1993); Illinois Commerce Comm'n v. Interstate Commerce Comm'n, 848 F.2d 1246 (D.C. Cir. 1988), cert. denied, 488 U.S. 1004 (1989).

{108} United States v. 4.18 Acres of Land, 542 F.2d 786 (9th Cir. 1976).

{109} United States ex. rel. Tenn. Valley Auth. v. Three Tracts of Land, 415 F. Supp. 586 (E.D. Tenn. 1976).

{110} United States v. 45,149.58 Acres of Land, 455 F. Supp. 192 (E.D.N.C. 1978).

{111} United States v. 162.20 Acres of Land, 639 F.2d 299 (5th Cir.), cert. denied, 454 U.S. 828 (1981), on remand, 567 F. Supp. 987 (N.D. Miss. 1983), aff'd, 733 F.2d 377 (5th Cir. 1984).

{112} Paulina Lake Historic Cabin Owners Ass'n v. United States Dep't of Agric. Forest Serv., 577 F. Supp. 1188 (D. Or. 1983) (citing United States v. 162.20 Acres of Land, 639 F.2d 299 (5th Cir. Unit A), cert. denied, 454 U.S. 828 (1981)).

{113} 16 U.S.C. § 470w(7)(B) (1994).

{114} Citizens for the Scenic Severn River Bridge, Inc. v. Skinner, 802 F. Supp. 1325 (D. Md. 1991), aff'd, 972 F.2d 338 (4th Cir. 1992) (bridge replacement); Communities, Inc. v. Busey, 956 F.2d 619 (6th Cir.), cert. denied, 506 U.S. 953 (1992) (airport); Town of Belmont v. Dole, No. C83 241-L (D.N.H. Aug. 20, 1983), rev'd, 766 F.2d 28 (1st Cir. 1985), cert. denied, 474 U.S. 1055 (1986) (highway); Stop H-3 Ass'n v. Coleman, 533 F.2d 434 (9th Cir.), cert. denied, 429 U.S. 999 (1976) (highway); Inman Park Restoration, Inc. v. Urban Mass Transp. Admin., 414 F. Supp. 99 (N.D. Ga. 1975), supp. order, 414 F. Supp. 121 (1976), aff'd per curiam sub. nom. Save Our Sycamore v. Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Auth., 576 F.2d 573 (5th Cir. 1978) (mass transportation project).

{115} Boyd v. Roland, 789 F.2d 347 (5th Cir. 1986); Wicker Park Historic Dist. Preservation Fund v. Pierce, 565 F. Supp. 1066 (N.D. Ill. 1982) (rental housing); Aertson v. Landrieu, 488 F. Supp. 314 (D. Mass.), aff'd, 637 F.2d 12 (1st Cir. 1980) (low-income housing).

{116} El Rancho La Comunidad v. United States, No. 90-113 (D.N.M. May 21, 1991).

{117} North Oakland Voters Alliance v. City of Oakland, No. C-92-0743 MHP (N.D. Cal. Oct. 6, 1992); Natural Resources Defense Council v. City of New York, 528 F. Supp. 1245 (S.D.N.Y. 1981), aff'd, 672 F.2d 292 (2d Cir.), cert. dismissed, 456 U.S. 920 (1982); National Center for Preservation Law v. Landrieu, 496 F. Supp. 716 (D.S.C.), aff'd per curiam, 635 F.2d 324 (4th Cir. 1980).

{118} Morris County Trust for Historic Preservation v. Pierce, 714 F.2d 271 (3d Cir. 1983); Preservation Coalition, Inc. v. Pierce, 667 F.2d 851 (9th Cir. 1982); WATCH v. Harris, 603 F.2d 310 (2d Cir.), cert. denied, 444 U.S. 995 (1979); Hart v. Denver Urban Renewal Auth., 551 F.2d 1178 (10th Cir. 1977); Wisconsin Heritages, Inc. v. Harris, 460 F. Supp. 1120 (E.D. Wis. 1978), 490 F. Supp. 1334 (1980).

{119} Neighborhood Dev. Corp. v. Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, 632 F.2d 21 (6th Cir. 1980); Save the Courthouse Comm. v. Lynn, 408 F. Supp. 1323 (S.D.N.Y. 1975).

{120} Ely v. Velde (Ely I), 451 F.2d 1130 (4th Cir. 1971).

{121} Carson v. Alvord, 487 F. Supp. 1049 (N.D. Ga. 1980) (public housing).

{122} H.R. Rep. No. 1457, 96th Cong., 1st Sess., at 45 (1980) (committee notes that there is a spectrum of Federal undertakings, ranging from direct Federal funding to Federal technical assistance for privately funded actions).

{123} Id.

{124} 16 U.S.C. § 470h-2(k) (1994).

{125} Lee v. Thornburgh, 707 F. Supp. 600 (D.D.C.), rev'd, 877 F.2d 1053 (D.C. Cir. 1989).

{126} 16 U.S.C. § 470w(7)(C) (1994).

{127} National Indian Youth Council v. Andrus, 501 F. Supp. 649 (D.N.M. 1980), aff'd, 664 F.2d 220 (10th Cir. 1981).

{128} Berkshire Scenic Ry. Museum v. Interstate Commerce Comm'n, 52 F.3d 378 (1st Cir. 1995); Friends of Sierra R.R. v. Interstate Commerce Comm'n, 881 F.2d 663 (9th Cir. 1989), cert. denied, 493 U.S. 1093 (1990); Connecticut Trust for Historic Preservation v. Interstate Commerce Comm'n, 841 F.2d 479 (2d Cir. 1988).

{129} Daingerfield Island Protective Soc'y v. Babbitt, 40 F.3d 442 (D.C. Cir. 1994); Fill the Pool Comm. v. Village of Johnson City, No. 82-CV-762 (HGM) (N.D.N.Y. Aug. 19, 1982) (demolition of pool in park obtained with Federal grant required compliance with § 106 prior to approval by National Park Service).

{130} Apache Survival Coalition v. United States, 21 F.3d 895 (9th Cir. 1994).

{131} Vieux Carré Property Owners, Residents & Assocs. v. Brown, 875 F.2d 453 (5th Cir. 1989), cert. denied, 493 U.S. 1020 (1990); Abenaki Nation of Mississquoi v. Hughes, 805 F. Supp. 234 (D. Vt. 1992), aff'd, 990 F.2d 729 (2d Cir. 1993); Walsh v. United States Army Corps of Eng'rs, 757 F. Supp. 781 (W.D. Tex. 1990); Colorado River Indian Tribes v. Marsh, 605 F. Supp. 1425 (C.D. Cal. 1985); Hough v. Marsh, 557 F. Supp. 74 (D. Mass. 1982); National Trust for Historic Preservation v. United States Army Corps of Eng'rs, 552 F. Supp. 784 (S.D. Ohio 1982); Bayou St. John Improv. Ass'n v. Sands, No. 81-1358 (E.D. La. May 28, 1981), injunction modified, [1983] 13 Envtl. L. Rep. (Envtl. L. Inst.) 20,011 (E.D. La. June 17, 1982).

{132} Citizens' Comm. for Envtl. Protection v. United States Coast Guard, 456 F. Supp. 101 (D.N.J. 1978).

{133} Native Americans for Enola v. United States Forest Serv., 832 F. Supp. 297 (D. Or. 1993), vacated, 60 F.3d 645 (9th Cir. 1995); Sierra Club v. Watt, No. CV-83-5878 AWT (C.D. Cal. Nov. 18, 1983), aff'd sub nom. Sierra Club v. Clark, 774 F.2d 1406 (9th Cir. 1985); Wilson v. Block, 708 F.2d 735 (D.C. Cir.), cert. denied, 464 U.S. 956 (1983) (authorization of expansion of private ski resort on Federal land).

{134} 16 U.S.C. § 470w(7)(C) (1994); 36 C.F.R. § 800.2(o) (1995); Weintraub v. Rural Elec. Admin., 457 F. Supp. 78 (M.D. Pa. 1978) (Rural Electrification Administration's requirement that its borrowers receive agency approval of construction plans and the agency's right to control surplus funds did not amount to a license; NHPA did not apply).

{135} National Trust for Historic Preservation v. Department of State, 834 F. Supp. 443 (D.D.C.), recons. denied, 834 F. Supp. 453 (D.D.C. 1993), aff'd in part, rev'd in part sub nom. Sheridan Kalorama Historical Ass'n v. Christopher, 49 F.3d 750 (D.C. Cir. 1995); Village of Los Ranchos v. Barnhart, 906 F.2d 1477 (10th Cir. 1990), cert. denied, 498 U.S. 1109 (1991); People for Responsible Omaha Urban Dev. v. Interstate Commerce Comm'n, CV88-0-247 (D. Neb. Feb. 14, 1989), aff'd, No. 89-1342 NE (8th Cir. Sept. 14, 1989), 889 F.2d 1092 (mem.), cert. denied, 495 U.S. 957 (1990); Lee v. Thornburgh, 707 F. Supp. 600 (D.D.C.), rev'd, 877 F.2d 1053 (D.C. Cir. 1989); Ringsred v. City of Duluth, 828 F.2d 1305 (8th Cir. 1987); Techworld Dev. Corp. v. District of Columbia Preservation League, 648 F. Supp. 106 (D.D.C. 1986).

{136} Sugarloaf Citizens Ass'n v. Federal Energy Regulatory Comm'n, 959 F.2d 508 (4th Cir. 1992).

{137} Vieux Carré Property Owners, Residents & Assocs. v. Brown, 875 F.2d 453 (5th Cir. 1989), cert. denied, 493 U.S. 1020 (1990).

{138} See supra notes 134-36; Lee v. Thornburgh, 877 F.2d 1053 (D.C. Cir. 1989); People for Responsible Omaha Urban Dev. v. Interstate Commerce Comm'n, CV88-0-247 (D. Neb. Feb. 14, 1989), aff'd, No. 89-1342 NE (8th Cir. Sept. 14, 1989), 889 F.2d 1092 (mem.), cert. denied, 495 U.S. 957 (1990); Edwards v. First Bank of Dundee, 534 F.2d 1242 (7th Cir. 1976) (when no Federal funds or Federal authority to license demolition of building involved, that State bank was federally insured and required to obtain the permission of Federal agency to relocate business did not convert private demolition into Federal action). But see Capitol Hill Restoration Soc'y v. Heimann, No. 80-0237 (D.D.C. July 31, 1980) (Comptroller of Currency required to comply with NHPA in approving application of national bank to establish branch).

{139} Village of Los Ranchos v. Barnhart, 906 F.2d 1477 (10th Cir. 1990), cert. denied, 498 U.S. 1109 (1991); People for Responsible Omaha Urban Dev. v. Interstate Commerce Comm'n, CV88-0-247 (D. Neb. Feb. 14, 1989), aff'd, No. 89-1342 NE (8th Cir. Sept. 14, 1989), 889 F.2d 1092 (mem.), cert. denied, 495 U.S. 957 (1990); Historic Preservation Guild v. Burnley, 896 F.2d 985 (6th Cir. 1989); Ringsred v. City of Duluth, 828 F.2d 1305 (8th Cir. 1987); Colorado River Indian Tribes v. Marsh, 605 F. Supp. 1425 (C.D. Cal. 1985) (Corps of Engineers must consider effect of private development even though only Federal involvement was issuance of permit for placement of riprap in river on development's boundary); River v. Richmond Metro. Auth., 359 F. Supp. 611 (E.D. Va.), aff'd per curiam, 481 F.2d 1280 (4th Cir. 1973) (local government received Federal funds for aspects of highway project, but no Federal involvement in the particular segment of the highway system at issue; court held no "Federal undertaking"); But see Thompson v. Fugate, 347 F. Supp. 120 (E.D. Va. 1972) (segment of beltway not segregable even though no Federal funds sought for segment).

{140} Id.

{141} Cobble Hill Ass'n v. Adams, 470 F. Supp. 1077 (E.D.N.Y. 1979) (temporary detour near historic district during highway reconstruction).

{142} Petterson v. Froehlke, 354 F. Supp. 45 (D. Or. 1972) (historic site 10 miles from airport expansion project).

{143} Gettysburg Battlefield Preservation Ass'n v. Gettysburg College, 799 F. Supp. 1571 (M.D. Pa. 1992), aff'd, 989 F.2d 487 (3d Cir. 1993); North Oakland Voters Alliance v. City of Oakland, No. C-92-0743 MHP (N.D. Cal. Oct. 6, 1992); Vieux Carré Property Owners, Residents & Assocs. v. Brown, 948 F.2d 1436 (5th Cir. 1991); Morris County Trust for Historic Preservation v. Pierce, 714 F.2d 271 (3d Cir. 1983).

{144} 36 C.F.R. § 800.2(o) (1995).

{145} McMillan Park Comm. v. National Capital Planning Comm'n, 759 F. Supp. 908 (D.D.C. 1991), 968 F.2d 1283 (D.C. Cir. 1992).

{146} Preservation League v. Lake Placid Land Corp., No. 92-CV-148 (N.D.N.Y. Feb. 9, 1993); Waterford Citizens' Ass'n v. Reilly, 970 F.2d 1287 (4th Cir. 1992).

{147} Morris County Trust for Historic Preservation v. Pierce, 714 F.2d 271 (3d Cir. 1983); Fill the Pool Comm. v. Village of Johnson City, No. 82 CV-762 (HGM) (N.D.N.Y. Aug. 19, 1982); National Indian Youth Council v. Andrus, 501 F. Supp. 649 (D.N.M. 1980), aff'd, 664 F.2d 220 (10th Cir. 1981).

{148} Vieux Carré Property Owners, Residents & Assocs. v. Brown, 948 F.2d 1436 (5th Cir. 1991); Gettysburg Battlefield Preservation Ass'n v. Gettysburg College, 799 F. Supp. 1571 (M.D. Pa. 1992), aff'd, 989 F.2d 487 (3d Cir. 1993); North Oakland Voters Alliance v. City of Oakland, No. C-92 0743 MHP (N.D. Cal. Oct. 6, 1992); Morris County Trust for Historic Preservation v. Pierce, 714 F.2d 271 (3d Cir. 1983). See also Nehring v. Harris, No. 79-C-1182 (N.D. Ill. Apr. 12, 1979), dismissed, 605 F.2d 559 (7th Cir. 1979); Save the Courthouse Comm. v. Lynn, 408 F. Supp. 1323 (S.D.N.Y. 1975).

{149} Morris County Trust for Historic Preservation v. Pierce, 714 F.2d 271 (3d Cir. 1983); Wisconsin Heritages, Inc. v. Harris, 460 F. Supp. 1120 (E.D. Wis. 1978) ("decision" was execution of loan and capital grant contract at time when agency could no longer require alterations in plans); Committee to Save the South Green v. Hills, [1977] 7 Envtl. L. Rep. (Envtl. L. Inst.) 20,061 (D. Conn. Nov. 5, 1976); Save the Courthouse Comm. v. Lynn, 408 F. Supp. 1323 (S.D.N.Y. 1975).

{150} 16 U.S.C. § 470f (1994).

{151} 36 C.F.R. § 800.3(c) (1995).

{152} Kent County Council for Historic Preservation v. Romney, 304 F. Supp. 885 (W.D. Mich. 1969).

{153} City of Grapevine v. Department of Transp., 17 F.3d 1502 (D.C. Cir.), cert. denied, 115 S. Ct. 635 (1994).

{154} Yerger v. Robertson, 981 F.2d 460 (9th Cir. 1992); 36 C.F.R. § 800.3(c) (1995).

{155} El Rancho La Comunidad v. United States, No. 90-113 (D.N.M. May 21, 1991) (court preliminarily enjoined applicant from continuing construction where Rural Electrification Administration failed to ensure that applicant adhered to conditional approval of project).

{156} Morris County Trust for Historic Preservation v. Pierce, 714 F.2d 271 (3d Cir. 1983); Thompson v. Fugate, 347 F. Supp. 120 (E.D. Va. 1972).

{157} Vieux Carré Property Owners, Residents & Assocs. v. Brown, 948 F.2d 1436 (5th Cir. 1991) (court states that it is impossible to pre-judge outcome of consultation process).

{158} Morris County Trust for Historic Preservation v. Pierce, 714 F.2d 271 (3d Cir. 1983); WATCH v. Harris, 603 F.2d 310 (2d Cir.), cert. denied, 444 U.S. 995 (1979).

{159} Sierra Club v. Watt, No. CV-83-5878 AWT (C.D. Cal. Nov. 18, 1983), aff'd sub nom. Sierra Club v. Clark, 774 F.2d 1406 (9th Cir. 1985).

{160} Illinois Commerce Comm'n v. Interstate Commerce Comm'n, 848 F.2d 1246 (D.C. Cir. 1988), cert. denied, 488 U.S. 1004 (1989) (ICC regulations provided for Section 106 process to begin prior to effective date of railroad exemption but after publication of notice of abandonment).

{161} In several cases where the agency action occurred prior to the 1976 amendments, the courts held NHPA inapplicable because the affected properties were not listed in the National Register at the time of the agency's approval of the expenditure of funds. Hart v. Denver Urban Renewal Auth., 551 F.2d 1178 (10th Cir. 1977); South Hill Neighborhood Ass'n v. Romney, 421 F.2d 454 (6th Cir. 1969), cert. denied, 397 U.S. 1025 (1970); Save the Courthouse Comm. v. Lynn, 408 F. Supp. 1323 (S.D.N.Y. 1975); Saint Joseph Historical Soc'y v. Land Clearance for Redev. Auth., 366 F. Supp. 605 (W.D. Mo. 1973). But see Committee to Save the South Green v. Hills, [1977] 7 Envtl. L. Rep. (Envtl. L. Inst.) 20,061 (D. Conn. Nov. 5, 1976) (agency must comply with Council's regulations because property was eligible even though agency need not comply with § 106 because property was not listed in National Register).

{162} 36 C.F.R. § 800.2 (e) (1995).

{163} 36 C.F.R. §§ 63.2, 63.3 (1995).

{164} Boyd v. Roland, 789 F.2d 347 (5th Cir. 1986); Morris County Trust for Historic Preservation v. Pierce, 714 F.2d 271 (3d Cir. 1983); Hough v. Marsh, 557 F. Supp. 74 (D. Mass. 1982). See also Pueblo of Sandia v. United States 50 F.3d 856 (10th Cir. 1995); Colorado River Indian Tribes v. Marsh, 605 F. Supp. 1425 (C.D. Cal. 1985) (agency may not apply different standards of historic review to properties listed in or officially determined eligible for the National Register and properties that might be eligible but have not been listed or officially determined to be eligible). A minority view is that neither Section 106 nor the Council's regulations apply if no properties have been determined formally by the Secretary to be eligible for the Register. Birmingham Realty Co. v. General Servs. Admin., 497 F. Supp. 1377 (N.D. Ala. 1980); Committee to Save the Fox Bldg. v. Birmingham Branch of the Fed. Reserve Bank, 497 F. Supp. 504 (N.D. Ala. 1980).

{165} McMillan Park Comm. v. National Capital Planning Comm'n, 968 F.2d 1283 (D.C. Cir. 1992); Morris County Trust for Historic Preservation v. Pierce, 714 F.2d 271 (3d Cir. 1983); National Center for Preservation Law v. Landrieu, 496 F. Supp. 716 (D.S.C.), aff'd per curiam, 635 F.2d 324 (4th Cir. 1980); National Indian Youth Council v. Andrus, 501 F. Supp. 649 (D.N.M. 1980), aff'd, 664 F.2d 220 (10th Cir. 1981).

{166} Morris County Trust for Historic Preservation v. Pierce, 714 F.2d 271 (3d Cir. 1983).

{167} National Center for Preservation Law v. Landrieu, 496 F. Supp. 716 (D.S.C.), aff'd per curiam, 635 F.2d 324 (4th Cir. 1980).

{168} 36 C.F.R. § 800.4 (1995).

{169} 36 C.F.R. § 800.2(c) (1995).

{170} Colorado River Indian Tribes v. Marsh, 605 F. Supp. 1425 (C.D. Cal. 1985); New Hanover Township v. United States Army Corps of Eng'rs, 796 F. Supp. 180 (E.D. Pa. 1992), vacated, 992 F.2d 470 (3d Cir. 1993) (court noted that project's effect on adjacent historic properties would be considered).

{171} People for Responsible Omaha Urban Dev. v. Interstate Commerce Comm'n, CV88-D-247 (D. Neb. Feb. 14, 1989), aff'd, No. 89-1342 NE (8th Cir. Sept. 14, 1989), 889 F.2d. 1092 (mem.), cert. denied, 495 U.S. 957 (1990); Ringsred v. City of Duluth, 828 F.2d 1305 (8th Cir. 1987); Hough v. Marsh, 557 F. Supp. 74 (D. Mass. 1982); Puerto Rico v. Muskie, 507 F. Supp. 1035 (D.P.R. 1981).

{172} See Pacific Gas Transmission Co. v. Richardson's Recreational Ranch, 773 F. Supp. 246 (D. Or. 1991), aff'd, 9 F.3d 1394 (9th Cir. 1993).

{173} The Council's proposed new regulations would clarify that identification efforts depend upon the nature of the project, the degree of its impact, and the likely nature and location of historic properties.

{174} 36 C.F.R. § 800.4(b) (1995); Pueblo of Sandia v. United States, 50 F.3d 856 (10th Cir. 1995).

{175} Pueblo of Sandia v. United States, 50 F.3d 856 (10th Cir. 1995); Attakai v. United States, 746 F. Supp. 1395 (D. Ariz. 1990); Ferris v. Secretary of the United States Dep't of Transp., No. 89-C-779-C (W.D. Wis. 1990); National Trust for Historic Preservation v. United States Army Corps of Eng'rs, 552 F. Supp. 784 (S.D. Ohio 1982).

{176} Commonwealth of Kentucky v. United States Army Corps of Eng'rs, No. 899-77 (E.D. Ky. Sept. 21, 1992); Sierra Club v. Watt, No. CV-83-5878 AWT (C.D. Cal. Nov. 18, 1983), aff'd sub nom. Sierra Club v. Clark, 774 F.2d 1406 (9th Cir. 1985).

{177} 36 C.F.R. § 800.4(a)(2) (1995).

{178} Wilson v. Block, 708 F.2d 735 (D.C. Cir.), cert. denied, 464 U.S. 956 (1983) (35 percent survey was sufficient); Barcelo v. Brown, 643 F.2d 835 (1st Cir. 1981), rev'd on other grounds sub nom. Weinberger v. Barcelo, 456 U.S. 305 (1982) (sample showed areas with no historic sites).

{179} Attakai v. United States, 746 F. Supp. 1395 (D. Ariz. 1990). But see Native Americans for Enola v. United States Forest Serv., 832 F. Supp. 297 (D. Or. 1993), vacated, 60 F.3d 645 (9th Cir. 1995); Sierra Club v. Watt, No. CV-83-5878 AWT (C.D. Cal. Nov. 18, 1983), aff'd sub nom. Sierra Club v. Clark, 774 F.2d 1406 (9th Cir. 1985).

{180} Attakai v. United States, 746 F. Supp. 1395 (D. Ariz. 1990); Barcelo v. Brown, 643 F.2d 835 (1st Cir. 1981), rev'd on other grounds sub nom. Weinberger v. Barcelo, 456 U.S. 305 (1982). See also Colorado River Indian Tribes v. Marsh, 605 F. Supp. 1425 (C.D. Cal. 1985). One court has held that when a SHPO recommends that a survey be done, the agency must show good cause for failing to follow that recommendation. Bayou St. John Improv. Ass'n v. Sands, No. 81-1358 (E.D. La. May 28, 1981), injunction modified, [1983] 13 Envtl. L. Rep. (Envtl. L. Inst.) 20,011 (June 17, 1982). Although consultation with the SHPO is required, the SHPO's approval is not. City of Columbia v. Soloman, No. 78-2109 (D.S.C. June l2, 1979).

{181} Attakai v. United States, 746 F. Supp. 1395 (D. Ariz. 1990).

{182} El Rancho La Comunidad v. United States, No. 90-113 (D.N.M. May 21, 1991); Benton Franklin Riverfront Trailway & Bridge Comm. v. Lewis, 701 F.2d 784 (9th Cir. 1983). But see Sierra Club v. Watt, No. CV-83-5878 AWT (C.D. Cal. Nov. 18, 1983), aff'd sub nom. Sierra Club v. Clark, 774 F.2d 1406 (9th Cir. 1985).

{183} 36 C.F.R. § 800.4(a)(iii) (1995). See Pueblo of Sandia v.United States, 50 F.3d 856 (10th Cir. 1995); Abenaki Nation of Mississquoi v. Hughes, 805 F. Supp. 234 (D. Vt. 1992), aff'd, 990 F.2d 729 (2d Cir. 1993); Attakai v. United States, 746 F. Supp. 1395 (D. Ariz. 1990).

{184} Pueblo of Sandia v. United States, 50 F.3d 856 (10th Cir. 1995).

{185} Compare Pueblo of Sandia v. United States, 50 F.3d 856 (10th Cir. 1995) (court notes that reasonable effort to identify traditional cultural properties depends on likelihood that properties may exist) with Apache Survival Coalition v. United States, 21 F.3d 895 (9th Cir. 1994) (court found that Forest Service appropriately and consistently solicited Native American input) and Native Americans for Enola v. United States Forest Serv., 832 F. Supp. 297 (D. Or. 1993), vacated, 60 F.3d 645 (9th Cir. 1995) (district court rejected Native American claims that further investigation was required).

{186} 36 C.F.R. § 800.4(c)(2) (1995).

{187} 36 C.F.R. § 800.4(c)(3) (1995). However, members of the public can appeal to the Keeper of the National Register. 36 C.F.R. § 60.12 (1995).

{188} 36 C.F.R. § 800.4(c)(4) (1995).

{189} 36 C.F.R. § 800.4 (1995). But see Native Americans for Enola v. United States Forest Serv., 832 F. Supp. 297 (D. Or. 1993), vacated, 60 F.3d 645 (9th Cir. 1995) (court found Forest Service in compliance with NHPA even though it issued permit without the Secretary of the Interior issuing a determination of eligibility).

{190} Central Okla. Preservation Alliance, Inc. v. Oklahoma City Urban Renewal Auth., 471 F. Supp. 68 (W.D. Okla. 1979).

{191} 36 C.F.R. § 800.4(d) (1995).

{192} Pueblo of Sandia v. United States, 50 F.3d 856 (10th Cir. 1995) (court held that failure to provide affidavits to SHPO and misrepresentation of Tribe's position evidenced lack of good faith effort to identify and evaluate properties).

{193} 36 C.F.R. § 800.4(d) (1995).

{194} 36 C.F.R. § 800.4(e) (1995).

{195} 36 C.F.R. § 800.5(a) (1995).

{196} The "effect" step would be eliminated under the Council's proposed regulations. Instead, the agency would proceed directly to evaluating whether the undertaking would have an "adverse effect."

{197} Ferris v. Secretary of the United States Dep't of Transp., No. 89-C 779-C (W.D. Wis. 1990).

{198} 36 C.F.R. §§ 800.5(c), 800.9(b) (1995).

{199} 36 C.F.R. § 800.9(a) (1995). Wilson v. Block, 708 F.2d 735 (D.C. Cir.), cert. denied, 464 U.S. 956 (1983); City of Columbia v. Soloman, No. 78 2109 (D.S.C. June 12, 1979).

{200} 36 C.F.R. § 800.5(d)(1) (1995).

{201} 36 C.F.R. § 800.5(d) (1995); Ferris v. Secretary of the United States Dep't of Transp., No. 89-C-779-C (W.D. Wis. 1990).

{202} Daingerfield Island Protective Soc'y v. Babbitt, 40 F.3d 442 (D.C. Cir. 1994) (court notes that Council could have requested additional information or sua sponte considered the effects on the nearby properties).

{203} 36 C.F.R. § 800.5(d)(2) (1995); Abenaki Nation of Mississquoi v. Hughes, 805 F. Supp. 234 (D. Vt. 1992), aff'd, 990 F.2d 729 (2d Cir. 1993); Communities Inc. v. Busey, 956 F.2d 619 (6th Cir.), cert denied, 506 U.S. 953 (1992); Wicker Park Historic Dist. Preservation Fund v. Pierce, 565 F. Supp. 1066 (N.D. Ill. 1982); Aertson v. Landrieu, 488 F. Supp. 314 (D. Mass.), aff'd, 637 F.2d 12 (1st Cir. 1980); Hoe v. Alexander, 483 F. Supp. 746 (D. Haw. 1980).

{204} See 36 C.F.R. § 800.5(d)(2) (1995) (this provision is used as a justification for such agreements).

{205} Citizens for the Scenic Severn River Bridge, Inc. v. Skinner, 802 F. Supp. 1325 (D. Md. 1991), aff'd, 972 F.2d 338 (4th Cir. 1992). {206} 36 C.F.R. § 800.5(e) (1995). See City of Grapevine v. Department of Transp., 17 F.3d 1502 (D.C. Cir.), cert. denied, 115 S. Ct. 635 (1994); Vieux Carré Property Owners, Residents, & Assocs. v. Pierce, No. 81-4777 (E.D. La. Aug. 10, 1982) (Council rejected determination of no adverse effect and parties entered into consultation process).

{207} 36 C.F.R. § 800.5(e) (1995).

{208} 36 C.F.R. § 800.5(e)(4) (1995).

{209} 36 C.F.R. § 800.13 (1995).

{210} West Branch Valley Flood Protection Ass'n v. Stone, 820 F. Supp. 1 (D.D.C. 1993).

{211} National Center for Preservation Law v. Landrieu, 496 F. Supp. 716 (D.S.C.), aff'd per curiam, 635 F.2d 324 (4th Cir. 1980); Don't Tear it Down, Inc. v. Pennsylvania Avenue Dev. Corp., 642 F.2d 527 (D.C. Cir. 1980).

{212} 36 C.F.R. § 800.6(c) (1995); Preservation League v. Lake Placid Land Corp., No. 92-CV-148 (N.D.N.Y. Feb. 9, 1993); Waterford Citizens' Ass'n v. Reilly, 970 F.2d 1287 (4th Cir. 1992).

{213} 16 U.S.C. § 470h-2(l) (1994).

{214} Abenaki Nation of Mississquoi v. Hughes, 805 F. Supp. 234 (D. Vt. 1992), aff'd, 990 F.2d 729 (2d Cir. 1993). See also Walsh v. United States Army Corps of Eng'rs, 757 F. Supp. 781 (W.D. Tex. 1990) (permit conditions provided specific mitigation measures, thus fulfilling requirements of Section 106).

{215} Walsh v. United States Army Corps of Eng'rs, 757 F. Supp. 781 (W.D. Tex. 1990). See also City of Grapevine v. Department of Transp., 17 F.3d 1502 (D.C. Cir.), cert. denied, 115 S. Ct. 635 (1995); Commonwealth of Kentucky v. United States Army Corps of Eng'rs, No. 89-77 (E.D. Ky. Sept. 21, 1992) (court found Corps in substantial compliance with NHPA even though MOA not signed).

{216} Commonwealth of Kentucky v. United States Army Corps of Eng'rs, No. 89-77 (E.D. Ky. Sept. 21, 1992). But see McMillan Park Comm. v. National Capital Planning Comm'n, 759 F. Supp. 908 (D.D.C. 1991), rev'd on other grounds, 968 F.2d 1283 (D.C.Cir. 1992).

{217} Don't Tear It Down, Inc. v. Pennsylvania Ave. Dev. Corp., 642 F.2d 527 (D.C. Cir. 1980).

{218} Citizens' Comm. for Envtl. Protec. v. United States Coast Guard, 456 F. Supp. 101 (D.N.J. 1978).

{219} Preservation League v. Lake Placid Land Corp., No. 92-CV-148 (N.D.N.Y. Feb. 9, 1993); West Branch Valley Flood Protection Ass'n v. Stone, 820 F. Supp. 1 (D.D.C. 1993); Waterford Citizens' Ass'n v. Reilly, 970 F.2d 1287 (4th Cir. 1992); Washington Trust for Historic Preservation v. City of Seattle, No. C87-1506C (W.D. Wash. Feb. 25, 1988); Don't Tear It Down, Inc. v. Pennsylvania Ave. Dev. Corp., 642 F.2d 527 (D.C. Cir. 1980).

{220} West Branch Valley Flood Protection Ass'n v. Stone, 820 F. Supp. 1 (D.D.C. 1993); Waterford Citizens' Ass'n v. Reilly, 970 F.2d 1287 (4th Cir. 1992); Washington Trust for Historic Preservation v. City of Seattle, No. C87-1506C (W.D. Wash. Feb. 25, 1988); See also Preservation League v. Lake Placid Land Corp., No. 92-CV-148 (N.D.N.Y. Feb. 9, 1993).

{221} 36 C.F.R. § 800.6(b) (1995). See Vieux Carré Property Owners, Residents, & Assocs. v. Pierce, No. 81-4777 (E.D. La. Aug. 10, 1982) (after unsuccessful consultation, panel meeting was held; court upheld the agency's compliance with NHPA).

{222} 16 U.S.C. § 470h-2(l) (1994).

{223} Terminations occur approximately 5-10 times per year.

{224} There have been two suits alleging that the Council's commenting process was influenced improperly by political pressure. Natural Resources Defense Council v. City of New York, 534 F. Supp. 279 (S.D.N.Y.), aff'd, 672 F.2d 292 (2d Cir.), cert. dismissed, 456 U.S. 920 (1982); National Center for Preservation Law v. Landrieu, 496 F. Supp. 716 (D.S.C.), aff'd per curiam, 635 F.2d 324 (4th Cir. 1980). In each case, the court examined the administrative record to ascertain what factors were involved in the decisionmaking process. Where the evidence showed that decisions were made on the basis of factors properly in the record and not on the political communications, the commenting process was upheld.

{225} 16 U.S.C. § 470h-2(l) (1994); 36 C.F.R. § 800.6(c)(2) (1995).

{226} 36 C.F.R. § 800.5(d) (1995); National Trust for Historic Preservation v. United States Army Corps of Eng'rs, 552 F. Supp. 784 (S.D. Ohio 1982) (Corps permit invalidated because it had been issued before the Section 106 process was complete).

{227} City of Grapevine v. Department of Transp., 17 F.3d 1502 (D.C. Cir.), cert. denied, 115 S. Ct. 635 (1994); Commonwealth of Kentucky v. United States Army Corps of Eng'rs, No. 89- 77 (E.D. Ky. Sept. 21, 1992); Vieux Carré Property Owners, Residents, & Assocs. v. Pierce, 948 F.2d 1436 (5th Cir. 1991).

{228} See El Rancho La Comunidad v. United States, No. 90-113 (D.N.M. May 21, 1991); Fill the Pool Comm. v. Village of Johnson City, No. 82-CV-762 (HGM) (N.D.N.Y. Aug. 19, 1982); Hall County Historical Soc'y v. Georgia Dep't of Transp., 447 F. Supp. 741 (N.D. Ga. 1978); Thompson v. Fugate, 347 F. Supp. 120 (E.D. Va. 1972).

{229} 36 C.F.R. § 800.6(d) (1995). See National Trust for Historic Preservation v. United States Army Corps of Eng'rs, 552 F. Supp. 784 (S.D. Ohio 1982) (all work was permanently enjoined under permit issued before § 106 process completed); Ferris v. Secretary of the United States Dep't of Transp., No. 89-C-779-C (W.D. Wis. 1990) (court found Council's opportunity to comment foreclosed where Coast Guard approved changes to lighthouse prior to notifying Council).

{230} Connecticut Trust for Historic Preservation v. Interstate Commerce Comm'n, 841 F.2d 479 (2d Cir. 1988) (Council had concluded that its opportunity to comment on abandonment of historic railroad line as a whole was foreclosed but opportunity to comment on individual affected features was not).

{231} Commonwealth of Kentucky v. United States Army Corps of Eng'rs, No. 89-77 (E.D. Ky. Sept. 21, 1992) (court found agency in compliance with NHPA even though parties failed to agree to MOA); Sierra Club v. Watt, No. CV-83-5878 AWT (C.D. Cal. Nov. 18, 1983), aff'd sub nom. Sierra Club v. Clark, 774 F.2d 1406 (9th Cir. 1985) (agency in "substantial compliance" with NHPA even though consultation and mitigation measures instituted after issuance of permit); Pennsylvania v. Morton, 381 F. Supp. 293 (D.D.C. 1974) (agency was in "substantial compliance" with NHPA even though it did not seek the Council's comments until after entering into a land exchange agreement because the agency made an effort to carry out the Council's recommendations made after the fact). But see Don't Tear It Down, Inc. v. General Servs. Admin., 401 F. Supp. 1194 (D.D.C. 1975) (court found agency actions in violation of NHPA where agency proceeded with demolition prior to completing consultation and receiving Council comment).

{232} See, e.g., Paulina Lake Historic Cabin Owners Ass'n v. United States Dep't of Agric. Forest Serv., 577 F. Supp. 1188 (D. Or. 1983) (decision to raze cabins up to agency). See also Walsh v. United States Army Corps of Eng'rs, 757 F. Supp. 781 (W.D. Tex. 1990) (NHPA imposes procedural requirements); Connecticut Trust for Historic Preservation v. Interstate Commerce Comm'n, 841 F.2d 479 (2d Cir. 1988).

{233} 16 U.S.C. § 470h-2(l) (1994). See Preservation League v. Lake Placid Land Corp., No. 92-CV-148 (N.D.N.Y. Feb. 9, 1993); Waterford Citizens' Ass'n v. Reilly, 970 F.2d 1287 (4th Cir. 1992); Washington Trust for Historic Preservation v. City of Seattle, No. C87-1506C (W.D. Wash. Feb. 25, 1988).

{234} El Rancho La Comunidad v. United States, No. 90-113 (D.N.M. May 21, 1991). See also Pacific Gas Transmission Co. v. Richardson's Recreational Ranch, 773 F. Supp. 246 (D. Or. 1991), aff'd, 9 F.3d 1394 (9th Cir. 1993).

{235} Pennsylvania v. Morton, 381 F. Supp. 293 (D.D.C. 1974).

{236} 5 U.S.C. § 706 (1994).

{237} 16 U.S.C. §§ 470h-2(a) (1994).

{238} 16 U.S.C. § 470h-2(b) (1994).

{239} 16 U.S.C. § 470h-2(f) (1994).

{240} 16 U.S.C. § 470h-2(l) (1994).

{241} Id. See also 36 C.F.R. § 800.6(c)(1) (1995).

{242} Vieux Carré Property Owners, Residents, & Assocs. v. Pierce, No. 814777 (E.D. La. Aug. 10, 1982).

{243} Coalition Against a Raised Expressway, Inc. v. Dole, [1987] 17 Envtl. L. Rep. (Envtl. L. Inst.) 20, 466 (S.D. Ala. Oct. 20, 1986), aff'd, 835 F.2d 803 (11th Cir. 1988).

{244} Ferris v. Secretary of the United States Dep't of Transp., No. 89-C779-C (W.D. Wis. 1990).

{245} Lee v. Thornburgh, 877 F.2d 1053 (D.C. Cir. 1989) (court interpreted Sections 110(b) & (d)'s reference to "assistance" as an expenditure of funds, and Section 110(b)'s reference to "agency action" as a license or other approval). [Ed. note: The 1992 amendments use the term "assistance" more broadly in Section 110(k).]

{246} National Trust for Historic Preservation v. Blanck, Civ. Action No. 94-1091 (PLF) (D.D.C. Sept. 13, 1996).

{247} Attakai v. United States, 746 F. Supp. 1395 (D. Ariz. 1990).

{248} Commonwealth of Kentucky v. United States Army Corps of Eng'rs, No. 89-77 (E.D. Ky. Sept. 21, 1992).

{249} Exec. Order No. 11,593, 3 C.F.R. 154 (1971), reprinted in 16 U.S.C. § 470 note (1994).

{250} Id. at § 7.

{251} Id. at § 2(a).

{252} Barcelo v. Brown, 643 F.2d 835 (1st Cir. 1981), rev'd on other grounds sub nom. Weinberger v. Barcelo, 456 U.S. 305 (1982).

{253} Central Okla. Preservation Alliance, Inc. v. Oklahoma City Urban Renewal Auth., 471 F. Supp. 68 (W.D. Okla. 1979); Save the Courthouse Comm. v. Lynn, 408 F. Supp. 1323 (S.D.N.Y. 1975).

{254} Exec. Order No. 11,593 § 2(b), 3 C.F.R. 154 (1971), reprinted in 16 U.S.C. § 470 note (1994); Warm Springs Dam Task Force v. Gribble, 378 F. Supp. 240 (N.D. Cal. 1974).

{255} Stop H-3 Ass'n v. Coleman, 533 F.2d 434 (9th Cir.), cert. denied, 429 U.S. 999 (1976).

{256} Exec. Order No. 11,593, § 2(c)-(f), 3 C.F.R. 154 (1971), reprinted in 16 U.S.C. § 470 note (1994). See National Trust for Historic Preservation v. Department of State, 834 F. Supp. 443 (D.D.C.), recons. denied, 834 F. Supp. 453 (D.D.C. 1993), aff'd in part, rev'd in part sub nom. Sheridan Kalorama Historical Ass'n v. Christopher, 49 F.3d 750 (D.C. Cir. 1995); Wicker Park Historic Dist. Preservation Fund v. Pierce, 565 F. Supp. 1066 (N.D. Ill. 1982).

{257} Barcelo v. Brown, 478 F. Supp. 646 (D.P.R. 1979), aff'd in part, rev'd in part, 643 F.2d 835 (1st Cir. 1981), rev'd on other grounds sub nom. Weinberger v. Barcelo, 456 U.S. 305 (1982); Aluli v. Brown, 437 F. Supp. 602 (D. Haw. 1977), aff'd in part, rev'd in part, 602 F.2d 876 (9th Cir. 1979).

{258} National Trust for Historic Preservation v. Department of State, 834 F. Supp. 443 (D.D.C.), recons. denied, 834 F. Supp. 453 (D.D.C. 1993), aff'd in part, rev'd in part sub nom. Sheridan Kalorama Historical Ass'n v. Christopher, 49 F.3d 750 (D.C. Cir. 1995) (court declined to find implied right of action under Executive Order, but acknowledged that other courts had found such a right); National Indian Youth Council v. Andrus, 501 F. Supp. 649 (D.N.M. 1980), aff'd, 664 F.2d 220 (10th Cir. 1981).

{259} See, e.g., Warm Springs Dam Task Force v. Gribble, 378 F. Supp. 240 (N.D. Cal. 1974).

{260} See James v. Lynn, 374 F. Supp. 900 (D. Colo. 1974) (Exec. Order No. 11,593 not enforced; evidence of historic resources presented at trial was sufficient compliance with historic review requirements); Warm Springs Dam Task Force v. Gribble, 378 F. Supp. 240 (N.D. Cal. 1974) (adequate discussion in environmental impact statement of archeological reources is not compliance with Exec. Order No. 11,593).

{261} United States ex. rel. Tenn. Valley Auth. v. Three Tracts of Land, 415 F. Supp. 586 (E.D. Tenn. 1976).

{262} Executive Order No. 13,006, § 2, 61 Fed. Reg. 26,071 (1996).

{263} Id.

{264} Id.

{265} Id. at § 3.

{266} Id. at § 4.

{267} Executive Order No. 13,007, § 1, 61 Fed. Reg. 26,711 (1996).

{268} Id. at § 2.

{269} Presidential Memorandum on Government-to-Government Relations with Native American Tribal Governments, April 29, 1994.

{270} Committee on Civic Rights of the Friends of the Newburyport Waterfront v. Romney, 518 F.2d 71 (1st Cir. 1975). Fees and costs were also sought under other authorities in preservation cases. See United States v. 4.18 Acres of Land, 542 F.2d 786 (9th Cir. 1976) (fees denied in condemnation case involving preservation issues); Black Hills Alliance v. Regional Forester, 526 F. Supp. 257 (D.S.D. 1981) (costs granted under Fed. R. Civ. P. 54).

{271} 16 U.S.C. § 470w-4 (1994).

{272} WATCH v. Harris, 535 F. Supp. 9 (D. Conn. 1981).

{273} Attorney's fees have been awarded, for example, in Indiana Coal Council v. Lujan, 774 F. Supp., 1385 (D.D.C. 1991), vacated in part and appeal dismissed, No. 91-5397 (D.C.Cir. April 26, 1993) and Ferris v. Secretary of the United States Dep't of Transp., No. 89-C-779-C (W.D. Wis. 1990). See also Fill the Pool Comm. v. Village of Johnson City, No. 82-CV762 (N.D.N.Y. June 23, 1983). [Ed. note: NHPA fees are based on market rate, in contrast to the Equal Access to Justice Act, 28 U.S.C. § 2412 (1994), and are applicable to NEPA and to § 4(f) of the Department of Transportation Act, which sets a low flat hourly rate adjusted for inflation.]

{274} National Trust for Historic Preservation v. United States Army Corps of Eng'rs, 570 F. Supp. 465 (S.D. Ohio 1983).

{275} Save the Tivoli, Inc. v. United States Dep't of Hous. & Urban Dev., Civ. No. 83-1281 (D.D.C. Oct. 16, 1986).

{276} Id.

{277} Paulina Lake Historic Cabin Owners Ass'n v. United States Dep't of Agric., Forest Serv., 577 F. Supp. 1188 (D. Or. 1983).

{278} Morris County Trust for Historic Preservation v. Pierce, 730 F.2d 94 (3d Cir. 1983).

{279} Vieux Carré Property Owners, Residents & Assocs. v. Brown, 875 F.2d 453 (5th Cir. 1989), cert. denied, 493 U.S. 1020 (1990); North Oakland Voters Alliance v. City of Oakland, No. C-92-0743 MHP (N.D. Cal. Oct. 6, 1992); Bywater Neighborhood Ass'n v. Tricarico, 879 F.2d 165 (5th Cir. 1989), cert. denied, 494 U.S. 1004 (1990); Boarhead Corp. v. Erickson, 726 F. Supp. 607 (E.D. Pa. 1989), aff'd, 923 F.2d 1011 (3d Cir. 1991). But see National Trust for Historic Preservation v. Blanck, Civ. Action No. 941091 (PLF) (D.D.C. Sept. 13, 1996).

{280} 42 U.S.C. § § 4321-4335 (1994).

{281} 49 U.S.C. § 303 (1994). See also Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991, 23 U.S.C. § § 101(a) and 133 (1994).

{282} 16 U.S.C. §§ 469-469c (1994).

{283} 16 U.S.C. §§ 470aa-470ll (1994).

{284} 25 U.S.C. §§3001-3013 (1994).

{285} 42 U.S.C. §§ 1996-1996a (1994).

{286} This report does not include a discussion of or citations to the many cases decided under these laws that do not address historic preservation but that deal with other aspects of the statutes.

{287} The statutes discussed in Section VIII.C. have generated relatively little litigation. Only those cases raising NHPA claims as well as claims under the statutes in that section are cited.

{288} Preservation Coalition, Inc. v. Pierce, 667 F.2d 851 (9th Cir. 1982).

{289} 42 U.S.C. § 4331(b)(4) (1994).

{290} 42 U.S.C. § 4332(2)(C) (1994).

{291} More specifically, the process is as follows: If an agency determines that a proposed action is neither adequately covered by an existing NEPA document nor subject to a categorical exclusion, the agency must, at a minimum, prepare an EA to determine whether the action will significantly impact the environment. If the EA supports a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI), the agency documents that determination and proceeds with the action. If the agency does not reach a FONSI, it must publish a Notice of Intent to prepare an EIS and begin the scoping process. An agency may opt to proceed directly to preparation of an EIS, without preparing an EA.

{292} Gettysburg Battlefield Preservation Ass'n v. Gettysburg College, 799 F. Supp. 1571 (M.D. Pa. 1992), aff'd, 989 F.2d 487 (3d Cir. 1993); Walsh v. United States Army Corps of Eng'rs, 757 F. Supp. 781 (W.D. Tex. 1990); Connecticut Trust for Historic Preservation v. Interstate Commerce Comm'n, 841 F.2d 479 (2d Cir. 1988); Ringsred v. City of Duluth, 828 F.2d 1305 (8th Cir. 1987).

{293} The Council's regulations encourage agencies to coordinate their NEPA review with their compliance under § 106 of NHPA. 36 C.F.R. § 800.14(a) (1995).

{294} Indiana Coal Council v. Lujan, 774 F. Supp. 1385 (D.D.C. 1991), vacated in part and appeal dismissed, No. 91-5397 (D.C. Cir. Apr. 26, 1993) (court noted that NEPA threshold appeared higher than NHPA).

{295} Preservation Coalition, Inc. v. Pierce, 667 F.2d 851 (9th Cir. 1982); Bayou St. John Improv. Ass'n v. Sands, No. 81-1358 (E.D. La. May 28, 1981), injunction modified, [1983] 13 Envtl. L. Rep. (Envtl. L. Inst.) 20,011 (June 17, 1982); National Indian Youth Council v. Andrus, 501 F. Supp. 649 (D.N.M. 1980), aff'd, 664 F.2d 220 (10th Cir. 1981); Cobble Hill Ass'n v. Adams, 470 F. Supp. 1077 (E.D.N.Y. 1979). Contra, Environmental Defense Fund v. Tenn.Valley Auth., 371 F. Supp. 1004 (E.D. Tenn. 1973), aff'd per curiam, 492 F.2d 466 (6th Cir. 1974).

{296} Warm Springs Dam Task Force v. Gribble, 378 F. Supp. 240 (N.D. Cal. 1974).

{297} Gettysburg Battlefield Preservation Ass'n v. Gettysburg College, 799 F. Supp. 1571 (M.D. Pa. 1992), aff'd, 989 F.2d 487 (3d Cir. 1993); Sugarloaf Citizens Ass'n v. Federal Energy Regulatory Comm'n, 959 F.2d 508 (4th Cir. 1992); Village of Los Ranchos v. Barnhart, 906 F.2d 1477 (10th Cir. 1990), cert. denied, 498 U.S. 1109 (1991); People for Responsible Omaha Urban Dev. v. Interstate Commerce Comm'n, CV88-0-247 (D. Neb.Feb. 14, 1989), aff'd, No. 89-1342 NE (8th Cir. Sept. 14, 1989), 889 F.2d 1092 (mem.), cert. denied, 495 U.S. 957 (1990).

{298} Sugarloaf Citizens Ass'n v. Federal Energy Regulatory Comm'n, 959 F.2d 508 (4th Cir. 1992); Village of Los Ranchos v. Barnhart, 906 F.2d 1477 (10th Cir. 1990), cert. denied, 498 U.S. 1109 (1991); Ringsred v. City of Duluth, 828 F.2d 1305 (8th Cir. 1987).

{299} National Trust for Historic Preservation v. Department of State, 834 F. Supp. 443 (D.D.C.), recons. denied, 834 F. Supp. 453 (D.D.C. 1993), aff'd in part, rev'd in part sub nom. Sheridan Kalorama Historical Ass'n v. Christopher, 49 F.3d 750 (D.C. Cir. 1995); Gettysburg Battlefield Preservation Ass'n v. Gettysburg College, 799 F. Supp. 1571 (M.D. Pa. 1992), aff'd, 989 F.2d 487 (3d Cir. 1993); Village of Los Ranchos v. Barnhart, 906 F.2d 1477 (10th Cir. 1990), cert. denied, 498 U.S. 1109 (1991); People for Responsible Omaha Urban Dev. v. Interstate Commerce Comm'n, CV88-0-247 (D. Neb. Feb. 14, 1989), aff'd, No. 89-1342 NE (8th Cir. Sept. 14, 1989), 889 F.2d 1092 (mem.), cert. denied, 495 U.S. 957 (1990); Attakai v. United States, 746 F. Supp. 1395 (D. Ariz. 1990); Ringsred v. City of Duluth, 828 F.2d 1305 (8th Cir. 1987).

{300} See, e.g., West Branch Valley Flood Protection Ass'n v. Stone, 820 F. Supp. (D.D.C. 1993).

{301} Village of Los Ranchos v. Barnhart, 906 F.2d 1477 (10th Cir. 1990), cert. denied, 498 U.S. 1109 (1991).

{302} Id.

{303} Sugarloaf Citizens Ass'n v. Federal Energy Regulatory Comm'n, 959 F.2d 508 (4th Cir. 1992).

{304} Ringsred v. City of Duluth, 828 F.2d 1305 (8th Cir. 1987).

{305} Gettysburg Battlefield Preservation Ass'n v. Gettysburg College, 799 F. Supp. 1571 (M.D. Pa. 1992), aff'd, 989 F.2d 487 (3d Cir. 1993).

{306} People for Responsible Omaha Urban Dev. v. Interstate Commerce Comm'n, CV88-0-247 (D. Neb. Feb. 14, 1989), aff'd, No. 89-1342 NE (8th Cir. Sept. 14, 1989), 889 F.2d 1092 (mem.), cert. denied, 495 U.S. 957 (1990).

{307} National Trust for Historic Preservation v. Department of State, 834 F. Supp. 443 (D.D.C.), recons. denied, 834 F. Supp. 453 (D.D.C. 1993), aff'd in part, rev'd in part sub nom. Sheridan Kalorama Historical Ass'n v. Christopher, 49 F.3d 750 (D.C. Cir. 1995).

{308} City of Grapevine v. Department of Transp., 17 F.3d 1502 (D.C. Cir.), cert. denied, 115 S. Ct. 635 (1994); Citizens for the Scenic Severn River Bridge, Inc. v. Skinner, 802 F. Supp. 1325 (D. Md. 1991), aff'd, 972 F.2d 338 (4th Cir. 1992).

{309} El Rancho La Comunidad v. United States, No. 90-113 (D.N.M. May 21, 1991).

{310} Abenaki Nation of Mississquoi v. Hughes, 805 F. Supp. 234 (D. Vt. 1992), aff'd, 990 F.2d 729 (2d Cir. 1993) (court found that permit conditions obviated need for EIS because conditions reduced impact of the project).

{311} Council on Environmental Quality Memorandum to Agencies Containing Answers to 40 Most Asked Questions on NEPA Regulations, 46 Fed. Reg. 18,026-38 (1981).

{312} 40 C.F.R. § 1508.27 (b)(3), (8) (1995).

{313} Committee to Save the Fox Bldg. v. Birmingham Branch of the Fed. Reserve Bank, 497 F. Supp. 504 (N.D. Ala. 1980). But see Colorado River Indian Tribes v. Marsh, 605 F. Supp. 1425 (C.D. Cal. 1985) ("major Federal action" does not have meaning independent of "significantly affecting the quality of the human environment").

{314} Aertson v. Landrieu, 488 F. Supp. 314 (D. Mass.), aff'd, 637 F.2d 12 (1st Cir. 1980) (demolition in and adjacent to historic district); Nehring v. Harris, No. 79-C-1182 (N.D. Ill. Apr. 12, 1979), dismissed, 605 F.2d 559 (7th Cir. 1979) (demolition of eligible property). In one early decision, Saint Joseph Historical Soc'y v. Land Clearance for Redev. Auth., 366 F. Supp. 605 (W.D. Mo. 1973), the court found that NEPA was not applicable because the historic properties at issue had not been listed in the Register.

{315} City of Grapevine v. Department of Transp., 17 F.3d 1502 (D.C. Cir.), cert. denied, 115 S. Ct. 635 (1994) (court found that agency considered cumulative impacts of most elements of project, but those elements not considered could not be included in approved plan); Walsh v. United States Army Corps of Eng'rs, 757 F. Supp. 781 (W.D. Tex. 1990) (court upheld agency study where EIS included analysis of cumulative impacts of proposed actions, but not cumulative impacts of "contemplated" actions).

{316} City of Grapevine v. Department of Transp., 17 F.3d 1502 (D.C. Cir.), cert. denied, 115 S. Ct. 635 (1994); Communities, Inc. v. Busey, 956 F.2d 619 (6th Cir.), cert. denied, 506 U.S. 953 (1992).

{317} Communities, Inc. v. Busey, 956 F.2d 619 (6th Cir.), cert. denied, 506 U.S. 953 (1992) (court upheld agency EIS that identified and discussed potential mitigation measures, even though EIS did not specify which mitigation measures would be adopted); Sierra Club v. Watt, No. CV-835878 AWT (C.D. Cal. Nov. 18, 1983), aff'd sub nom. Sierra Club v. Clark, 774 F.2d 1406 (9th Cir. 1985) (court found agency in compliance with NEPA where EIS addressed several mitigation measures and agency implemented substantial site-specific mitigation measures which had not been incorporated into EIS).

{318} Bayou St. John Improv. Ass'n v. Sands, No. 81-1358 (E.D. La. May 28, 1981), injunction modified, [1983] 13 Envtl. L. Rep. (Envtl. L. Inst.) 20,011 (June 17, 1982) (levee improvements); National Indian Youth Council v. Andrus, 501 F. Supp. 649 (D.N.M. 1980), aff'd, 664 F.2d 220 (10th Cir. 1981) (mining); Montana Wildlife Fed'n v. Morton, 406 F. Supp. 489 (D. Mont. 1976) (road); Warm Springs Dam Task Force v. Gribble, 378 F. Supp. 240 (N.D. Cal. 1974) (dam). But see James v. Lynn, 374 F. Supp. 900 (D. Colo. 1974) (EIS did not discuss historic resources; court declined to issue injunction because building still stood and plans could be changed). See also 40 C.F.R. §§ 1502.16(g), 1508.27(b)(8) (1995).

{319} Preservation Coalition, Inc. v. Pierce, 667 F.2d 851 (9th Cir. 1982) (urban renewal); Sierra Club v. Watt, No. CV-83-5878 AWT (C.D. Cal. Nov. 18, 1983), aff'd sub nom. Sierra Club v. Clark, 774 F.2d 1406 (9th Cir. 1985) (motorcycle race); Bayou St. John Improv. Ass'n v. Sands, No. 811358 (E.D. La. May 28, 1981), (injunction modified, [1983] 13 Envtl. L. Rep. (Envtl. L. Inst.) 20,011 (June 17, 1982) (levee improvements); National Center for Preservation Law v. Landrieu, 496 F. Supp. 716 (D.S.C.), aff'd per curiam, 635 F.2d 324 (4th Cir. 1980) (community development); Wisconsin Heritages, Inc. v. Harris, 460 F. Supp. 1120 (E.D. Wis. 1978), 490 F. Supp. 1334 (1980) (urban renewal); Libby Rod & Gun Club v. Poteat, 457 F. Supp. 1177 (D. Mont. 1978) (dam); Aluli v. Brown, 437 F. Supp. 602 (D. Hawaii 1977), aff'd in part, rev'd in part on other grounds, 602 F.2d 876 (9th Cir. 1979) (military operations); Inman Park Restoration, Inc. v. Urban Mass Transp. Admin., 414 F. Supp. 99 (N.D. Ga. 1975), supp. order, 414 F. Supp. 121 (1976), aff'd per curiam sub nom. Save Our Sycamore v. Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Auth., 576 F.2d 573 (5th Cir. 1978) (mass transit system); Warm Springs Dam Task Force v. Gribble, 378 F. Supp. 240 (N.D. Cal. 1974), aff'd, 621 F.2d 1017 (9th Cir. 1980) (dam); Environmental Defense Fund v. Tenn. Valley Auth., 371 F. Supp. 1004 (E.D. Tenn. 1973), aff'd per curiam, 492 F.2d 466 (6th Cir. 1974) (dam).

{320} Wisconsin Heritages, Inc. v. Harris, 460 F. Supp. 1120 (E.D. Wis. 1978), 490 F. Supp. 1334 (1980) (urban renewal); Save the Courthouse Comm. v. Lynn, 408 F. Supp. 1323 (S.D.N.Y. 1975) (urban renewal); Boston Waterfront Residents Ass'n v. Romney, 343 F. Supp. 89 (D. Mass. 1972) (waterfront development).

{321} Warm Springs Dam Task Force v. Gribble, 378 F. Supp. 240 (N.D. Cal. 1974) (dam); Sierra Club v. Watt, No. CV-83-5878 AWT (C.D. Cal. Nov. 18, 1983), aff'd sub nom. Sierra Club v. Clark, 774 F.2d 1406 (9th Cir. 1985).

{322} Wisconsin Heritages, Inc. v. Harris, 490 F. Supp. 1334 (E.D. Wis. 1980) (the court reasoned that plaintiffs should have brought their concerns about the historic properties to the attention of the agency during the time the EIS was being prepared; the EIS must be judged in light of the information available to the agency at the time it prepared the EIS).

{323} James v. Lynn, 374 F. Supp. 900 (D. Colo. 1974).

{324} Aluli v. Brown, 437 F. Supp. 602 (D. Haw. 1977), aff'd in part, rev'd in part on other grounds, 602 F.2d 876 (9th Cir. 1979).

{325} Natural Resources Defense Council v. City of New York, 528 F. Supp. 1245 (S.D.N.Y. 1981), aff'd, 672 F.2d 292 (2d Cir.), cert. dismissed, 456 U.S. 920 (1982); Inman Park Restor., Inc. v. Urban Mass Transp. Admin., 414 F. Supp. 99 (N.D. Ga. 1975), supp. order, 414 F. Supp. 121 (1976), aff'd per curiam sub nom. Save Our Sycamore v. Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Auth., 576 F.2d 573 (5th Cir. 1978). See also West Branch Valley Flood Protection Ass'n v. Stone, 820 F. Supp. 1 (D.D.C. 1993); Abenaki Nation of Mississquoi v. Hughes, 805 F. Supp. 234 (D. Vt. 1992), aff'd, 990 F.2d 729 (2d Cir. 1993).

{326} WATCH v. Harris, 603 F.2d 310 (2d Cir.), cert. denied, 444 U.S. 995 (1979).

{327} See, e.g., Department of Transportation Act, 49 U.S.C. § 303 (1994) and Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1968, 23 U.S.C. § 138 (1994).

{328} Department of Transportation Act, § 4(f), Pub. L. No. 89-670, 80 Stat. 931, 933 (1966).

{329} District of Columbia Fed'n of Civic Ass'ns v. Volpe, 459 F.2d 1231 (D.C. Cir. 1971), supp. op., 459 F.2d 1263, cert. denied, 405 U.S. 1030 (1972).

{330} These cases are beyond the scope of this report. See 23 C.F.R. § 771.135(p) (1994).

{331} Benton Franklin Riverfront Trailway & Bridge Comm. v. Lewis, 701 F.2d 784 (9th Cir. 1983).

{332} Ferris v. Secretary of the United States Dep't of Transp., No. 89-C779-C (W.D. Wis. 1990) (removal of lens in lighthouse constituted use).

{333} Coalition Against a Raised Expressway, Inc. v. Dole, [1987] 17 Envtl. L. Rep. (Envtl. L. Inst.) 20,466 (S.D. Ala. Oct. 20, 1986).

{334} Id.

{335} City of Grapevine v. Department of Transp., 17 F.3d 1502 (D.C. Cir.), cert. denied, 115 S. Ct. 635 (1994); Communities, Inc. v. Busey, 956 F.2d 619 (6th Cir.), cert. denied, 506 U.S. 953 (1992).

{336} Nashvillians Against I-440 v. Lewis, 524 F. Supp. 962 (M.D. Tenn. 1981) (court held that the claimed harm must be to the historic value or quality of the properties).

{337} Town of Belmont v. Dole, 766 F.2d 28 (1st Cir. 1985), cert. denied, 474 U.S. 1055 (1986). See also 23 C.F.R. § 771.135 (p) (1995).

{338} Stop H-3 Ass'n v. Coleman, 533 F.2d 434 (9th Cir.), cert. denied, 429 U.S. 999 (1976).

{339} But see Nashvillians Against I-440 v. Lewis, 524 F. Supp. 962 (M.D. Tenn. 1981) (compliance with § 4(f) not required for every property within the scope of § 106 of NHPA).

{340} 49 U.S.C. § 303(c) (1994).

{341} Blue Grass Land & Nature Trust, Inc. v. Adams, No. 77-65 (E.D. Ky. Sept. 7, 1979).

{342} Benton Franklin Riverfront Trailway & Bridge Comm. v. Lewis, 701 F.2d 784 (9th Cir. 1983).

{343} Citizens for the Scenic Severn River Bridge, Inc. v. Skinner, 802 F. Supp. 1325 (D. Md. 1991), aff'd, 972 F.2d 338 (4th Cir. 1992).

{344} Blue Grass Land & Nature Trust, Inc. v. Adams, No. 77-65 (E.D. Ky. Sept. 7, 1979).

{345} Town of Belmont v. Dole, 766 F.2d 28 (1st Cir. 1985), cert. denied, 474 U.S. 1055 (1986); see 23 C.F.R. § 771.135(g) (1995).

{346} The act is also known as the "Archeological Recovery Act" or the "Moss-Bennett Act."

{347} 16 U.S.C. § 469-469c (1994).

{348} 16 U.S.C. § 470aa (1994).

{349} 16 U.S.C. § 470bb(6) (1994). The act has been interpreted to apply to "purposeful" excavation and removal of archeological resources. Attakai v. United States, 746 F. Supp. 1395 (D. Ariz. 1990).

{350} 16 U.S.C. § 470ee, 470ff (1994).

{351} 16 U.S.C. § 470gg (1994).

{352} 25 U.S.C. § 3003 (1994).

{353} Abenaki Nation of Mississquoi v. Hughes, 805 F. Supp. 234 (D. Vt. 1992), aff'd, 990 F.2d 729 (2d Cir. 1993).

{354} 60 Fed. Reg. 62,159 (Dec. 4, 1995) (to be codified at 43 C.F.R. pt. 10).

{355} Federal lands are defined in NAGPRA as "lands which are controlled or owned by the United States." 25 U.S.C.§ 3001(5) (1994). At least one court has declined to interpret "control" broadly and found that NAGPRA did not apply where the degree of Federal involvement was limited to issuance of a permit. Abenaki Nation of Mississquoi v. Hughes, 805 F. Supp. 234 (D. Vt. 1992), aff'd, 990 F.2d 729 (2d Cir. 1993).

{356} 25 U.S.C. § 3002(c) (1994). If the items are on tribal land then consent of the tribe must be obtained prior to excavations.

{357} 25 U.S.C. § 3002(d)(1) (1994).

{358} 42 U.S.C. § 1996 (1994).

{359} Attakai v. United States, 746 F. Supp. 1395 (D. Ariz. 1990) (citing Crow v. Gullet, 541 F. Supp. 785 (D.S.C. 1982), aff'd, 706 F.2d 856 (8th Cir. 1983), cert. denied, 464 U.S. 977 (1983) (court found that AIRFA does not create a cause of action in Federal courts for violation of religious freedom)). [Ed. note: The Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993, 42 U.S.C. § 2000bb(b) (1994), provides such judicial relief.]

{360} AIRFA was augmented by the Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993, 42 U.S.C. § 2000bb(b) (1994), which established statutory standards for free exercise rights "substantially burdened" by Federal, State, and local agency actions, and allowed plaintiffs to bring causes of action for violations of the act.

{361} Preservation League v. Lake Placid Land Corp., No. 92-CV-148 (N.D.N.Y. Feb. 9, 1993) (land owner sought to demolish historic structure purchased from FDIC); Pacific Gas Transmission Co. v. Richardson's Recreational Ranch, 773 F. Supp. 246 (D. Or. 1991) (land owner denied plaintiff access to land to conduct survey), aff'd, 9 F.3d 1394 (9th Cir. 1993); North Oakland Voters Alliance v. City of Oakland, No. C-92-0743 MHP (N.D. Cal. Oct. 6, 1992) (HUD regulations required grant receiving city to comply with NHPA); El Rancho La Comunidad v. United States, No. 90113 (D.N.M. May 21, 1991) (company constructing electric substation with funds provided by Rural Electrification Administration); Weintraub v. Rural Elec. Admin., 457 F. Supp. 78 (M.D. Pa. 1978) (non-Federal parties had borrowed money from Federal agency); River v. Richmond Metro. Auth., 359 F. Supp. 611 (E.D. Va.) (non-Federal parties had received Federal assistance for other parts of highway project), aff'd per curiam, 481 F.2d 1280 (4th Cir. 1973).

{362} Vieux Carré Property Owners, Residents & Assocs. v. Brown, 875 F.2d 453 (5th Cir. 1989), cert. denied, 493 U.S. 1020 (1990) (recipient of Corps permit); Gettysburg Battlefield Preservation Ass'n v. Gettysburg College, 799 F. Supp. 1571 (M.D. Pa. 1992) (exchanged land with National Park Service), aff'd, 989 F.2d 487 (3d Cir. 1993); Bywater Neighborhood Ass'n v. Tricarico, 879 F.2d 165, 167 n.7 (5th Cir. 1989) (owners of FCC licensed facility), cert. denied, 494 U.S. 1004 (1990); Edwards v. First Bank of Dundee, 534 F.2d 1242 (7th Cir. 1976) (federally insured bank).

{363} See, e.g., Native Americans for Enola v. United States Forest Serv., 832 F. Supp. 297 (D. Or. 1993) (logging company intervened as defendant), vacated, 60 F.3d 645 (9th Cir. 1995); Berkshire Scenic Ry. Museum v. Interstate Commerce Comm'n, 52 F. 3d 378 (1st Cir. 1995) (railroad operating company intervened); National Trust for Historic Preservation v. Department of State, 834 F. Supp. 443 (D.D.C.), recons. denied, 834 F. Supp. 453 (D.D.C. 1993) (Republic of Turkey intervened as defendant), aff'd in part, rev'd in part sub nom. Sheridan Kalorama Historical Ass'n v. Christopher, 49 F.3d 750 (D.C. Cir. 1995); Apache Survival Coalition v. United States, 21 F.3d 895 (9th Cir. 1994) (University of Arizona intervened as appellee); People for Responsible Omaha Urban Dev. v. Interstate Commerce Comm'n, CV88-0-247 (D. Neb. Feb. 14, 1989), aff'd, No. 89-1342 NE (8th Cir. Sept. 14, 1989), 889 F.2d 1092 (mem.), cert. denied, 495 U.S. 957 (1990) (National Trust intervened).

{364} Section 1331 also grants courts jurisdiction to hear cases involving State law if the outcome depends upon construction of Federal law. Preservation League v. Lake Placid Land Corp., No. 92-CV-148 (N.D.N.Y. Feb. 9, 1993) (citing Smith v. Kansas City Title & Trust, 255 U.S. 180, (1921)).

{365} See, e.g., National Trust for Historic Preservation v. Federal Deposit Ins. Corp., 995 F.2d 238 (D.C. Cir.) (finding that Federal Deposit Insurance Act denies all courts jurisdiction to act against FDIC in its role as conservator or receiver), vacated, 5 F.3d 567 (D.C. Cir. 1993), reinstated in part, 21 F.3d 469 (D.C. Cir.), cert. denied, 115 S. Ct. 683 (1994); Boarhead Corp. v. Erickson, 923 F.2d 1011 (3d Cir. 1991) (holding that Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act precluded subject matter jurisdiction); Friends of Sierra R.R. v. Interstate Commerce Comm'n, 881 F.2d 663 (9th Cir. 1989) (court did not have jurisdiction to review original claim because statutory time-limit of Administrative Order Review Act had expired), cert. denied, sub nom. Tuolumne Park & Recreation Dist. v. Interstate Commerce Comm'n, 493 U.S. 1093 (1990); Bywater Neighborhood Ass'n v. Tricarico, 879 F.2d 165 (5th Cir. 1989) (precluding Federal district court jurisdiction because Communications Act assigned exclusive jurisdiction to United States Courts of Appeals), cert. denied, 494 U.S. 1004 (1990).

{366} 5 U.S.C. §§ 701-706 (1994); Vieux Carré Property Owners, Residents & Assocs. v. Brown, 875 F.2d 453 (5th Cir. 1989), cert denied, 493 U.S. 1020 (1990); Illinois Commerce Comm'n v. Interstate Commerce Comm'n, 848 F.2d 1246 (D.C. Cir. 1988), cert. denied, 488 U.S. 1004 (1989); Committee to Save the South Green v. Hills, [1977] 7 Envtl. L. Rep. (Envtl. L. Inst.) 20,061 (D. Conn. Nov. 5, 1976); Save the Courthouse Committee v. Lynn, 408 F. Supp. 1323 (S.D.N.Y. 1975); River v. Richmond Metro. Auth., 359 F. Supp. 611 (E.D. Va.), aff'd per curiam, 481 F.2d 1280 (4th Cir. 1973). APA does not confer jurisdiction to a district court if another statute expressly precludes review.

{367} Indiana Coal Council v. Lujan, 774 F. Supp. 1385 (D.D.C. 1991), vacated in part, appeal dismissed, No. 91-5397 (D.C. Cir. Apr. 26, 1993).

{368} Section 1367 is the codification of the common law doctrines of ancillary and pendent jurisdiction. Pursuant to those doctrines, jurisdiction was granted in Hall County Historical Soc'y v. Georgia Dep't of Transp., 447 F. Supp. 741 (N.D. Ga. 1978) (intervenor claim of breach of agreement), but was declined in River v. Richmond Metro. Auth., 359 F. Supp. 611 (E.D. Va.) (court declined to hear State constitutional claims), aff'd per curiam, 481 F.2d 1280 (4th Cir. 1973). See also Gettysburg Battlefield Preservation Ass'n v. Gettysburg College, 799 F. Supp. 1571 (M.D. Pa. 1992), aff'd, 989 F.2d 487 (3d Cir. 1993); Citizens for the Scenic Severn River Bridge, Inc. v. Skinner, 802 F. Supp. 1325 (D. Md. 1991), aff'd, 972 F.2d 338 (4th Cir. 1992) (court declines to exercise supplemental jurisdiction).

{369} U.S. Const. Art. III, § 2, cl. 1. Article III standing requires that plaintiffs allege that 1) they have suffered an injury in fact; 2) the injury is fairly traceable to the action of the defendant, and 3) the injury will likely be redressed by a favorable decision. See North Oakland Voters Alliance v. City of Oakland, No. C-92-0743 MHP (N.D. Cal. Oct. 6, 1992) (citing Lujan v. Defenders of Wildlife, 112 S. Ct. 2130, 2136 (1992)).

{370} South Hill Neighborhood Ass'n v. Romney, 421 F.2d 454 (6th Cir. 1969), cert. denied, 397 U.S. 1025 (1970).

{371} See Preservation League v. Lake Placid Land Corp., No. 92-CV-148 (N.D.N.Y. Feb. 9, 1993) (plaintiff did not allege injury); Kent County Council for Historic Preservation v. Romney, 304 F. Supp. 885 (W.D. Mich. 1969) (complaint did not show sufficient interest).

{372} North Oakland Voters Alliance v. City of Oakland, No. C-92-0743 MHP (N.D. Cal. Oct. 6, 1992). Occasionally standing is based on the Administrative Procedure Act, 5 U.S.C. §§ 701-706 (1994). See Ely v. Velde (Ely I), 451 F.2d 1130 (4th Cir. 1971); Blue Grass Land & Nature Trust, Inc. v. Adams, No. 77-65 (E.D. Ky. Sept. 7, 1979); Historic Preservation of Shreveport v. Dep't of Health, Educ., & Welfare, No. 78-0905 (W.D. La. Sept. 11, 1978); Save the Courthouse Comm. v. Lynn, 408 F. Supp. 1323 (S.D.N.Y. 1975); River v. Richmond Metro. Auth., 359 F. Supp. 611 (E.D. Va.), aff'd per curiam, 481 F.2d 1280 (4th Cir. 1973).

{373} Neighborhood Dev. Corp. v. Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, 632 F.2d 21 (6th Cir. 1980).

{374} Preservation League v. Lake Placid Land Corp., No. 92-CV-148 (N.D.N.Y. Feb. 9, 1993); Committee to Save the Fox Bldg. v. Birmingham Branch of the Fed. Reserve Bank, 497 F. Supp. 504 (N.D. Ala. 1980).

{375} North Oakland Voters Alliance v. City of Oakland, No. C-92-0743 MHP (N.D. Cal. Oct. 6, 1992); Benton Franklin Riverfront Trailway & Bridge Comm. v. Lewis, 701 F.2d 784 (9th Cir. 1983); Neighborhood Dev. Corp. v. Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, 632 F.2d 21 (6th Cir. 1980); Hall County Historical Soc'y v. Georgia Dep't of Transp., 447 F. Supp. 741 (N.D. Ga. 1978); Weintraub v. Rural Elec. Admin., 457 F. Supp. 78 (M.D. Pa. 1978); Save the Courthouse Comm. v. Lynn, 408 F. Supp. 1323 (S.D.N.Y. 1975).

{376} North Oakland Voters Alliance v. City of Oakland, No. C-92-0743 MHP (N.D. Cal. Oct. 6, 1992); Neighborhood Dev. Corp. v. Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, 632 F.2d 21 (6th Cir. 1980).

{377} Weintraub v. Rural Elec. Admin., 457 F. Supp. 78 (M.D. Pa. 1978).

{378} Hall County Historical Soc'y v. Georgia Dep't of Transp., 447 F. Supp. 741 (N.D. Ga. 1978).

{379} Benton Franklin Riverfront Trailway & Bridge Comm. v. Lewis, 701 F.2d 784 (9th Cir. 1983).

{380} Committee to Save the South Green v. Hills, [1977] 7 Envtl. L. Rep. (Envtl. L. Inst.) 20,061 (D. Conn. Nov. 5, 1976); Ad Hoc Comm. to Save the Old Carnegie Lib'y Bldg. v. City of Atlanta, No. C77-541A (N.D. Ga. Apr. 7, 1977).

{381} Ad Hoc Comm. to Save the Old Carnegie Lib'y Bldg. v. City of Atlanta, No. C77-541A (N.D. Ga. Apr. 7, 1977).

{382} Streater v. United States Dep't of Transp., No. CIV. A. 95-2162 (E.D. Pa. Mar. 25, 1996) (court finds plaintiffs lack standing because, inter alia, they appeared to assert the interests of third parties).

{383} Vieux Carré Property Owners, Residents & Assocs. v. Brown, 875 F.2d 453 (5th Cir. 1989) cert. denied, 493 U.S. 1020 (1990); Benton Franklin Riverfront Trailway & Bridge Comm. v. Lewis, 701 F.2d 784 (9th Cir. 1983); Ely v. Velde (Ely I), 451 F.2d 1130 (4th Cir. 1971); Committee to Save the Fox Bldg. v. Birmingham Branch of the Fed. Reserve Bank, 497 F. Supp. 504 (N.D. Ala. 1980); Weintraub v. Rural Elec. Admin., 457 F. Supp. 78 (M.D. Pa. 1978); Ad Hoc Comm. to Save the Old Carnegie Lib'y Bldg. v. City of Atlanta, No. C77-541A (N.D. Ga. Apr. 7, 1977); Committee to Save the South Green v. Hills, [1977] 7 Envtl. L. Rep. (Envtl. L. Inst.) 20,061 (D. Conn. Nov. 5, 1976); Save the Courthouse Comm. v. Lynn, 408 F. Supp. 1323 (S.D.N.Y. 1975); River v. Richmond Metro. Auth., 359 F. Supp. 611 (E.D. Va.), aff'd per curiam, 481 F.2d 1280 (4th Cir. 1973).

{384} El Rancho La Comunidad v. United States, No. 90-113 (D.N.M. May 21, 1991); Preservation League v. Lake Placid Land Corp., No. 92-CV-148 (N.D.N.Y. Feb. 9, 1993); Save the Courthouse Comm. v. Lynn, 408 F. Supp. 1323 (S.D.N.Y. 1975); Ely v. Velde (Ely I), 321 F. Supp. 1088 (E.D. Va.), aff'd in part, rev'd in part on other grounds, 451 F.2d 1130 (4th Cir. 1971).

{385} El Rancho La Comunidad v. United States, No. 90-113 (D.N.M. May 21, 1991); Weintraub v. Rural Elec. Admin., 457 F. Supp. 78 (M.D. Pa. 1978); Hall County Historical Soc'y v. Georgia Dep't of Transp., 447 F. Supp. 741 (N.D. Ga. 1978).

{386} Id.; Vieux Carré Property Owners, Residents & Assocs. v. Brown, 875 F.2d 453 (5th Cir. 1989), cert. denied, 493 U.S. 1020 (1990); Waterford Citizens' Ass'n v. Reilly, 970 F.2d 1287 (4th Cir. 1992); Bywater Neighborhood Ass'n v. Tricarico, 879 F.2d 165 (5th Cir. 1989), cert. denied, 494 U.S. 1004 (1990); Neighborhood Dev. Corp. v. Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, 632 F.2d 21 (6th Cir. 1980); Save the Courthouse Comm. v. Lynn, 408 F. Supp. 1323 (S.D.N.Y. 1975); River v. Richmond Metro. Auth., 359 F. Supp. 611 (E.D.Va.), aff'd per curiam, 481 F.2d 1280 (4th Cir.1973). But see Preservation League v. Lake Placid Land Corp., No. 92CV-148 (N.D.N.Y. Feb. 9, 1993) (court found plaintiff organization did not properly allege injury).

{387} Sierra Club v. Morton, 405 U.S. 727 (1972).

{388} Preservation League v. Lake Placid Land Corp., No. 92-CV-148 (N.D.N.Y. Feb. 9, 1993).

{389} Attaki v. United States, 746 F. Supp. 1395 (D. Ariz. 1990).

{390} Commonwealth of Kentucky v. United States Army Corps of Eng'rs, No. 89-77 (E.D. Ky. Sept. 21, 1992; Pennsylvania v. Morton, 381 F. Supp. 293 (D.D.C. 1974). See also Weintraub v. Rural Elec. Admin., 457 F. Supp. 78 (M.D. Pa. 1978) (SHPO had standing).

{391} South Hill Neighborhood Ass'n v. Romney, 421 F.2d 454 (6th Cir. 1969), cert. denied, 397 U.S. 1025 (1970). But see North Oakland Voters Alliance v. City of Oakland, No. C-92- 0743 MHP (N.D. Cal. Oct. 6, 1992) (court found plaintiff had real interest by demonstrating involvement in administrative process).

{392} Ely v. Velde (Ely I), 321 F. Supp. 1088 (E.D. Va.), aff'd in part, rev'd in part on other grounds, 451 F.2d 1130 (4th Cir. 1971).

{393} Citizens' Comm. for Envtl. Protection v. United States Coast Guard, 456 F. Supp. 101 (D.N.J. 1978); Hall County Historical Soc'y v. Georgia Dep't of Transp., 447 F. Supp. 741 (N.D. Ga. 1978). But see Don't Tear It Down, Inc. v. Pennsylvania Ave. Dev. Corp., 642 F.2d 527 (D.C. Cir. 1980) (standing not at issue; court addressed plaintiffs' challenges to MOA).

{394} Waterford Citizens' Ass'n v. Reilly, 970 F.2d 1287 (4th Cir. 1992); Preservation League v. Lake Placid Land Corp., No. 92-CV-148 (N.D.N.Y. Feb. 9, 1993); Washington Trust for Historic Preservation v. City of Seattle, No. C87-1506C (W.D. Wash. Feb. 25, 1988).

{395} 36 C.F.R. §§ 800.6(c)(1) (1995).

{396} Apache Survival Coalition v. United States, 21 F.3d 895 (9th Cir. 1994); Sierra Club v. Watt, No. CV-83-5878 AWT (C.D. Cal. Nov. 18, 1983), aff'd sub nom. Sierra Club v. Clark, 774 F.2d 1406 (9th Cir. 1985); River v. Richmond Metro. Auth., 359 F. Supp. 611 (E.D. Va.), aff'd per curiam, 481 F.2d 1280 (4th Cir. 1973). Some courts apply the 6-year statute of limitations in the Tucker Act, 28 U.S.C. § 2401(a) (1994), to environmental cases.

{397} Birmingham Realty Co. v. General Servs. Admin., 497 F. Supp. 1377 (N.D. Ala. 1980).

{398} Preservation Coalition, Inc. v. Pierce, 667 F.2d 851 (9th Cir. 1982). See also Inman Park Restoration, Inc. v. Urban Mass Transp. Admin., 414 F. Supp. 99 (N.D. Ga. 1975), supp. order, 414 F. Supp. 121 (1976), aff'd per curiam sub. nom. Save Our Sycamore v. Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Auth., 576 F.2d 573 (5th Cir. 1978) (laches did not bar suit although project had been publicized for 13 years).

{399} Preservation Coalition, Inc. v. Pierce, 667 F.2d 851 (9th Cir. 1982) (8 years); Bayou St. John Improv. Ass'n v. Sands, No. 81-1358 (E.D. La. May 28, 1981), injunction modified, [1983] 13 Envtl. L. Rep. (Envtl. L. Inst.) 20,011 (June 17, 1982) (1 year); Hall County Historical Soc'y v. Georgia Dep't of Transp., 447 F. Supp. 741 (N.D. Ga. 1978) (2 years); River v. Richmond Metro. Auth., 359 F. Supp. 611 (E.D. Va.), aff'd per curiam, 481 F.2d 1280 (4th Cir. 1973) (7 years). But see Citizens & Landowners Against the Miles City/New Underwood Powerline v. Secretary, United States Dep't of Energy, 513 F. Supp. 257 (D.S.D. 1981), aff'd, 683 F.2d 1171 (8th Cir. 1982) (plaintiffs involved over 2 years before bringing suit; court held they had delayed too long and laches applied).

{400} Apache Survival Coalition v. United States, 21 F.3d 895 (9th Cir. 1994); Save the Courthouse Comm. v. Lynn, 408 F. Supp. 1323 (S.D.N.Y. 1975).

{401} Apache Survival Coalition v. United States, 21 F.3d 895 (9th Cir. 1994).

{402} Id.

{403} Id.; Blue Grass Land & Nature Trust, Inc. v. Adams, No. 77-65 (E.D. Ky. Sept. 7, 1979); River v. Richmond Metro. Auth., 359 F. Supp. 611 (E.D. Va.), aff'd per curiam, 481 F.2d 1280 (4th Cir. 1973). See also City of Columbia v. Soloman, No. 78-2109 (D.S.C. June 12, 1979.

{404} WATCH v. Harris, 603 F.2d 310 (2d Cir.), cert. denied, 444 U.S. 995 (1979); Committee to Save the South Green v. Hills, [1977] 7 Envtl. L. Rep. (Envtl. L. Inst.) 20,061 (D. Conn. Nov 5, 1976); Save the Courthouse Comm. v. Lynn, 408 F. Supp. 1323 (S.D.N.Y. 1975).

{405} Birmingham Realty Co. v. General Servs. Admin., 497 F. Supp. 1377 (N.D. Ala. 1980); Capitol Hill Restoration Soc'y v. Heimann, No. 80-0237 (D.D.C. July 31, 1980); City of Columbia v. Soloman, No. 78-2109 (D.S.C. June 12, 1979).

{406} Committee to Save the Fox Bldg. v. Birmingham Branch of the Fed. Reserve Bank, 497 F. Supp. 504 (N.D. Ala. 1980).

{407} Bayou St. John Improv. Ass'n v. Sands. No 81-1358 (E.D. La. May 28, 1981), injunction modified, [1983] 13 Envtl. L. Rep. (Envtl. L. Inst.) 20,011 (June 17, 1982).

{408} Inman Park Restoration, Inc. v. Urban Mass Transp. Admin., 414 F. Supp. 99 (N.D. Ga. 1975), supp. order, 414 F. Supp. 121 (1976), aff'd per curiam sub nom. Save Our Sycamore v. Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Auth., 576 F.2d 573 (5th Cir. 1978). See also WATCH v. Harris, 603 F.2d 310 (2d Cir.), cert. denied. 444 U.S. 495 (1979).

{409} See Apache Survival Coalition v. United States, 21 F.3d 895 (9th Cir. 1994).

{410} El Rancho La Comunidad v. United States, No. 90-113 (D.N.M. May 21, 1991).

{411} Id. But see Apache Survival Coalition v. United States, 21 F.3d 895 (9th Cir. 1994) (court barred plaintiff's claim due to laches after finding that Forest Service provided ample opportunities for plaintiff to voice concerns).

{412} Inman Park Restoration, Inc. v. Urban Mass Transp. Admin., 414 F. Supp. 99 (N.D. Ga 1975), aff'd per curiam sub. nom. Save Our Sycamore v. Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Auth., 576 F.2d 573 (5th Cir. 1978).

{413} Sierra Club v. Watt, No. CV-83-5878 A WT(C.D. Cal. Nov. 18, 1983), aff'd sub. nom. Sierra Club v. Clark, 774 F.2d 1406 (9th Cir. 1985).

{414} El Rancho La Comunidad v. United States, No. 90-113 (D.N.M. May 21, 1991).

{415} Committee on Civic Rights of the Friends of the Newburyport Waterfront v. Romney, 518 F.2d 71 (1st Cir. 1975); Black Hills Alliance v. Regional Forester, 526 F. Supp. 257 (D.S.D. 1981); Don't Tear It Down, Inc. v. General Servs. Admin., 401 F. Supp. 1194 (D.D.C. 1975).

{416} Native Americans for Enola v. United States Forest Serv., 832 F. Supp. 297 (D.Or. 1993), vacated, 60 F.3d 645 (9th Cir. 1995) (logging covered by permit complete and permit expired); Gettysburg Battlefield Preservation Ass'n. v. Gettysburg College, 799 F. Supp. 1571 (M.D. Pa. 1992), aff'd, 989 F.2d 487 (3d Cir. 1993) (land exchange completed and private entities in control of property). See also Indiana Coal Council v. Lujan, 774 F. Supp. 1385 (D.D.C. 1991), vacated in part and appeal dismissed, No. 91-5397 (D.C. Cir. Apr. 26, 1993).

{417} El Rancho La Comunidad v. United States, No. 90-113 (D.N.M. May 21, 1991) (court rejected mootness claim after finding that the damage done by defendants could be reversed and the site salvaged). See also Vieux Carré Property Owners, Residents & Assocs. v. Brown, No. 87-3700 (E.D. La. Sept. 21, 1987), aff'd in part, rev'd in part, 875 F.2d 453 (5th Cir. 1989), cert. denied, 493 U.S. 1020 (1990), on remand, No. 87-3700 (E.D. La. Aug. 15, 1990), aff'd in part, rev'd in part, 948 F.2d 1436 (5th Cir. 1991), on remand, No. 87-3700 (E.D. La. Mar. 15, 1993), aff'd, 40 F.3d 112 (5th Cir. 1994), reh'g en banc denied, 49 F.3d 730 (5th Cir. 1995) (courts addressed mootness claim several times at various stages of proceeding).

{418} Berkshire Scenic Ry. Museum v. Interstate Commerce Comm'n, 52 F.3d 378 (1st Cir. 1995); Pueblo of Sandia v. United States, 50 F.3d 856 (10th Cir. 1995); City of Grapevine v. Dep't of Transp., 17 F.3d 1502 (D.C. Cir.), cert. denied, 115 S. Ct. 635 (1994); National Trust for Historic Preservation v. Federal Deposit Ins. Corp., No. 93-0904 (D.D.C. May 7, 1993), aff'd, 995 F.2d 238 (D.C. Cir.), vacated, 5 F.3d 567 (D.C. Cir. 1993), reinstated in part, 21 F.3d 469 (D.C. Cir.), cert. denied, 115 S. Ct. 683 (1994); West Branch Valley Flood Protection Ass'n v. Stone, 820 F. Supp. 1 (D.D.C. 1993); Indiana Coal Council v. Lujan, 774 F. Supp. 1385 (D.D.C. 1991), vacated in part, appeal dismissed, No. 91-5397 (D.C. Cir. Apr. 26, 1993); Sugarloaf Citizens Ass'n v. Federal Energy Regulatory Comm'n, 959 F.2d 508 (4th Cir. 1992); Communities, Inc. v. Busey, 956 F.2d 619 (6th Cir.), cert. denied, 506 U.S. 953 (1992); Boarhead Corp. v. Erickson, 726 F. Supp. 607 (E.D. Pa. 1989), aff'd, 923 F.2d 1011 (3d Cir. 1991); Friends of Sierra R.R. v. Interstate Commerce Comm'n, 881 F.2d 663 (9th Cir. 1989), cert. denied sub nom. Tuolumne Park & Recreation Dist. v. Interstate Commerce Comm'n, 493 U.S. 1093 (1990); Illinois Commerce Comm'n v. Interstate Commerce Comm'n, 848 F.2d 1246 (D.C. Cir. 1988), cert. denied, 488 U.S. 1004 (1989); Town of Belmont v. Dole, No. C83-241-L (D.N.H. Aug. 20, 1983), rev'd, 766 F.2d 28 (1st Cir. 1985), cert. denied, 474 U.S. 1055 (1986); Techworld Dev. Corp. v. District of Columbia Preservation League, 648 F. Supp.106 (D.D.C. 1986); National Center for Preservation Law v. Landrieu, 496 F. Supp. 716 (D.S.C.), aff'd per curiam, 635 F.2d 324 (4th Cir. 1980).

{419} Ely v. Velde (Ely I), 451 F.2d 1130 (4th Cir. 1971).

{420} See National Trust for Historic Preservation v. Blanck, Civ. Action No. 94-1091 (PLF) (D.D.C. Sept. 13, 1996); Citizens for the Scenic Severn River v. Skinner, 802 F. Supp. 1325 (D. Md. 1991) (court acknowledged that evidence outside the administrative record may be considered to explain the record or to determine whether appropriate factors were considered).

{421} 5 U.S.C. § 706(2)(A) (1994).

{422} Boarhead Corp. v. Erickson, 923 F.2d 1011 (3d Cir. 1991); Bywater Neighborhood Assoc. v. Tricarico, 879 F.2d 165 (5th Cir. 1989), cert denied, 494 U.S. 1004 (1990); Vieux Carré Property Owners, Residents and Assocs. v. Brown, 875 F.2d 453 (5th Cir. 1989), cert. denied, 493 U.S. 1020 (1990) (even though court found implied private right of action, it still reviewed the Federal agency action under the APA standard of review); North Oakland Voters Alliance v. City of Oakland, No. C-92-0743 MHP (N.D. Cal. Oct. 6, 1992).

{423} National Trust for Historic Preservation v. Blanck, Civ. Action No. 94-1091 (PLF) (D.D.C. Sept. 13, 1996).

{424} Temporary restraining orders granted in National Trust for Historic Preservation v. Federal Deposit Ins. Corp., No. 93-0904 (D.D.C. May 7, 1993), aff'd, 995 F.2d 238 (D.C. Cir.), vacated, 5 F.3d 567 (D.C. Cir. 1993), reinstated in part, 21 F.3d 469 (D.C. Cir.), cert. denied, 115 S. Ct. 683 (1994); Preservation League v. Lake Placid Land Corp., No. 92-CV-148 (N.D.N.Y. Feb. 9, 1993); State of Kansas v. Adams, 608 F.2d 861 (10th Cir. 1979), cert. denied sub nom. Spannaus v. Goldschmidt, 445 U.S. 963 (1980); Fill the Pool Comm. v. Village of Johnson City, No. 82-CV-762 (HGM) (N.D.N.Y. Aug. 19, 1982); Citizens & Landowners Against the Miles City/New Underwood Powerline v. Secretary, United States Dep't of Energy, 513 F. Supp. 257 (D.S.D. 1981), aff'd, 683 F.2d 1171 (8th Cir. 1982); Bayou St. John Improv. Ass'n v. Sands, No. 81-1358 (E.D. La. May 28, 1981), injunction modified, [1983] 13 Envtl. L. Rep. (Envtl. L. Inst.) 20,011 (June 17, 1982); Committee to Save the Fox Bldg. v. Birmingham Branch of the Fed. Reserve Bank, 497 F. Supp. 504 (N.D. Ala. 1980); Carson v. Alvord, 487 F. Supp. 1049 (N.D. Ga. 1980); Historic Preservation of Shreveport v. Department of Health, Educ., & Welfare, No. 78-0905 (W.D. La. Sept. 11, 1978); Committee to Save the South Green v. Hills, [1977] 7 Envtl. L. Rep. (Envtl. L. Inst.) 20,061 (D. Conn. Nov. 5, 1976); Save the Courthouse Comm. v. Lynn, 408 F. Supp. 1323 (S.D.N.Y. 1975); Don't Tear It Down, Inc. v. General Servs. Admin., 401 F. Supp. 1194 (D.D.C. 1975).

Temporary restraining orders denied in Wicker Park Historic Dist. Preservation Fund v. Pierce, 565 F. Supp. 1066 (N.D. Ill. 1982); Birmingham Realty Co. v. General Servs. Admin., 497 F. Supp. 1377 (N.D. Ala. 1980); Barcelo v. Brown, 478 F. Supp. 646 (D.P.R. 1979), aff'd in part, rev'd in part, 643 F.2d 835 (1st Cir. 1981), rev'd on other grounds sub. nom. Weinberger v. Barcelo, 456 U.S. 305 (1982); Cobble Hill Ass'n v. Adams, 470 F. Supp. 1077 (E.D.N.Y. 1979); Citizens' Comm. for Envtl. Protection v. United States Coast Guard, 456 F. Supp. 101 (D.N.J. 1978); Weintraub v. Rural Elec. Admin., 457 F. Supp. 78 (M.D. Pa. 1978); Inman Park Restoration, Inc. v. Urban Mass Transp. Admin., 414 F. Supp. 99 (N.D. Ga. 1975), supp. order, 414 F. Supp. 121 (1976), aff'd per curiam sub nom. Save Our Sycamore v. Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Auth., 576 F.2d 573 (5th Cir. 1978).

{425} Permanent injunctions granted in Pacific Gas Transmission Co. v. Richardson's Recreational Ranch, 773 F. Supp. 246 (D. Or. 1991), aff'd, 9 F.3d 1394 (9th Cir. 1993); Stop H-3 Ass'n v. Coleman, 533 F.2d 434 (9th Cir.), cert. denied, 429 U.S. 999 (1976); National Trust for Historic Preservation v. United States Army Corps of Eng'rs, 552 F. Supp. 784 (S.D. Ohio 1982); Commonwealth of Puerto Rico v. Muskie, 507 F. Supp. 1035 (D.P.R.), injunction vacated sub. nom. Marquez-Colon v. Reagan, 668 F.2d 611 (1st Cir. 1981); Thompson v. Fugate, 347 F. Supp. 120 (E.D. Va. 1972).

{426} Preliminary injunctions granted in El Rancho La Comunidad v. United States, No. 90-113 (D.N.M. May 21, 1991); Attakai v. United States, 746 F. Supp. 1395 (D. Ariz. 1990); Ferris v. Secretary of the United States Dep't of Transp., No. 89-C-779-C (W.D. Wis. 1989); Colorado River Indian Tribes v. Marsh, 605 F. Supp. 1425 (C.D. Cal. 1985); Fill the Pool Comm. v. Village of Johnson City, No. 82-CV-762 (HGM) N.D.N.Y. Aug. 19, 1982); Wisconsin Heritages, Inc. v. Harris, 460 F. Supp. 1120 (E.D. Wis. 1978), 490 F. Supp. 1334 (1980); Libby Rod & Gun Club v. Poteat, 457 F. Supp. 1177 (D. Mont. 1978); Hall County Historical Soc'y v. Georgia Dep't of Transp., 447 F. Supp. 741 (N.D. Ga. 1978); Committee to Save the South Green v. Hills, [1977] 7 Envtl. L. Rep. (Envtl. L. Inst.) 20,061 (D. Conn. Nov. 5, 1976); Save the Courthouse Comm. v. Lynn, 408 F. Supp. 1323 (S.D.N.Y. 1975); Boston Waterfront Residents Ass'n v. Romney, 343 F. Supp. 89 (D. Mass. 1972).

Preliminary injunctions denied because agency complied with NHPA or other related laws in Native Americans for Enola v. United States Forest Serv., 832 F. Supp. 297 (D. Or. 1993), vacated, 60 F.3d 645 (9th Cir. 1995); Walsh v. United States Army Corps of Eng'rs, 757 F. Supp. 781 (W.D. Tex. 1990); Town of Belmont v. Dole, 766 F.2d 28 (1st Cir. 1985), cert. denied, 474 U.S. 1055 (1986); Sierra Club v. Watt, No. CV-83-5878 AWT (C.D. Cal. Nov. 18, 1983), aff'd sub nom. Sierra Club v. Clark, 774 F.2d 1406 (9th Cir. 1985); Northwest Indian Cemetery Protection Ass'n v. Peterson, 552 F. Supp. 951 (N.D. Cal.1982); National Indian Youth Council v. Andrus, 501 F. Supp. 649 (D.N.M. 1980), aff'd, 664 F.2d 220 (10th Cir. 1981); Catholic Action of Hawaii/Peace Educ. Project v. Brown, 468 F. Supp. 190 (D. Hawaii 1979), rev'd sub. nom. Weinberger v. Catholic Action of Hawaii/Peace Educ. Project, 643 F.2d 569 (9th Cir. 1980), rev'd, 454 U.S. 139 (1981); Central Okla. Preservation Alliance, Inc. v. Oklahoma City Urban Renewal Auth., 471 F. Supp. 68 (W.D. Okla. 1979); D.C. Fed'n of Civic Ass'ns v. Adams, 571 F.2d 1310 (4th Cir. 1978); Ely v. Velde (Ely I), 451 F.2d 1130 (4th Cir. 1971).

Injunction denied because NHPA inapplicable in Preservation League v. Lake Placid Land Corp., No. 92-CV-148 (N.D.N.Y. Feb. 9, 1993); Gettysburg Battlefield Preservation Ass'n v. Gettysburg College, 799 F. Supp. 1571 (M.D. Pa. 1992), aff'd, 989 F.2d 487 (3d Cir. 1993); Citizens for the Scenic Severn River Bridge, Inc. v. Skinner, 802 F. Supp. 1325 (D. Md. 1991), aff'd, 972 F.2d 338 (4th Cir. 1992); McMillan Park Comm. v. National Capital Planning Comm'n, 968 F.2d 1283 (D.C. Cir. 1992); Village of Los Ranchos v. Barnhart, 906 F.2d 1477 (10th Cir. 1990), cert. denied, 498 U.S. 1109 (1991); People for Responsible Omaha Urban Dev. v. Interstate Commerce Comm'n, CV-88-0-247 (D. Neb. Feb. 14, 1989), aff'd, No. 89-1342 NE (8th Cir. Sept. 14, 1989), 889 F.2d 1092 (mem.), cert. denied, 495 U.S. 957 (1990); Lee v. Thornburgh, 877 F.2d 1053 (D.C. Cir. 1989); Historic Preservation Guild v. Burnley, 896 F.2d 985 (6th Cir. 1989); Vieux Carré Property Owners, Residents & Assocs. v. Brown, 875 F.2d 453 (5th Cir. 1989); Ringsred v. City of Duluth, 828 F.2d 1305 (8th Cir. 1987); Techworld Dev. Corp. v. District of Columbia Preservation League, 648 F. Supp. 106 (D.D.C. 1986); Boyd v. Roland, 789 F.2d 349, (5th Cir. 1986); Committee to Save the Fox Bldg. v. Birmingham Branch of the Fed. Reserve Bank, 497 F. Supp. 504 (N.D. Ala. 1980); Weintraub v. Rural Elec. Admin., 457 F. Supp. 78 (M.D. Pa. 1978); Ad Hoc Comm. To Save the Old Carnegie Lib'y Bldg. v. City of Atlanta, No. C77-541A (N.D. Ga. Apr. 7, 1977); Saint Joseph Historical Soc'y v. Land Clearance for Redev. Auth., 366 F. Supp. 605 (W.D. Mo. 1973).

Injunction denied on other grounds in Apache Survival Coalition v. United States, 21 F.3d 895 (9th Cir. 1994) (NHPA claim barred by laches); National Trust for Historic Preservation v. Federal Deposit Ins. Corp., No. 93-0904 (D.D.C. May 7, 1993) (court lacked jurisdiction), aff'd, 995 F.2d 238 (D.C. Cir.), vacated, 5 F.3d 567 (D.C. Cir. 1993), reinstated in part, 21 F.3d 469 (D.C. Cir.), cert. denied, 115 S. Ct. 683 (1994); Don't Tear It Down, Inc. v. Pennsylvania Ave. Dev. Corp., 642 F.2d 527 (D.C. Cir. 1980) (terms of MOA had been satisfied); Edwards v. First Bank of Dundee, 534 F.2d 1242 (7th Cir. 1976) (court lacked jurisdiction); Paulina Lake Historic Cabin Owners Ass'n v. United States Dep't of Agric. Forest Serv., 577 F. Supp. 1188 (D. Or. 1983) (agency stipulated that it would comply with NHPA); Aluli v. Brown, 437 F. Supp. 602 (D. Hawaii 1977), aff'd in part, rev'd in part on other grounds, 602 F.2d 876 (9th Cir. 1979) (plaintiffs had not shown irreparable injury); James v. Lynn, 374 F. Supp. 900 (D. Colo. 1974) (compliance with Exec. Order No. 11,593 would be a needless act); Warm Springs Dam Task Force v. Gribble, 378 F. Supp. 240 (N.D. Cal. 1974) (although injunction denied, court ordered defendants not to disturb archeological sites).

{427} See, e.g., Berkshire Scenic Ry. Museum v. Interstate Commerce Comm'n, 52 F.3d 378 (1st Cir. 1995) (court of appeals affirmed ICC abandonment exemption decision); National Trust for Historic Preservation v. Department of State, 834 F. Supp. 443 (D.D.C.), recons. denied, 834 F. Supp. 453 (D.D.C. 1993), aff'd in part, rev'd in part sub nom. Sheridan Kalorama Historical Ass'n v. Christopher, 49 F.3d 750 (D.C. Cir. 1995) (court of appeals affirmed decisions of Director of Office of Foreign Missions and Foreign Missions Board of Zoning Adjustment); City of Grapevine v. Department of Transp., 17 F.3d 1502 (D.C. Cir.) (court of appeals denied petition for review of FAA's approval), cert. denied, 115 S. Ct. 635 (1994); Daingerfield Island Protective Soc'y v. Babbitt, 40 F.3d 442 (D.C. Cir. 1994) (court of appeals affirmed decisions of National Park Service and National Capital Planning Commission); Abenaki Nation of Mississquoi v. Hughes, 805 F. Supp. 234 (D. Vt. 1992) (district court affirmed Corps permitting decision), aff'd, 990 F.2d 729 (2d Cir. 1993); New Hanover Township v. United States Army Corps of Eng'rs, 796 F. Supp. 180 (E.D. Pa. 1992) (district court affirmed Corps permitting decision), vacated, 992 F.2d 470 (3d Cir. 1993); West Branch Valley Flood Protection Ass'n v. Stone, 820 F. Supp. 1 (D.D.C. 1993) (district court held that Corps had complied with NEPA and NHPA); Indiana Coal Council v. Lujan, 774 F. Supp. 1385 (D.D.C. 1991) (district court found that Office of Surface Mining regulations failed to comply with NHPA), vacated in part and appeal dismissed, No. 91-5397 (D.C. Cir. Apr. 26, 1993); Yerger v. Robertson, 981 F.2d 460 (9th Cir. 1992) (court of appeals upheld agency decision not to renew permit); Commonwealth of Kentucky v. United States Army Corps of Eng'rs, No. 89-77 (E.D. Ky. Sept. 21, 1992) (district court held that Corps complied with NEPA and NHPA); Waterford Citizens' Ass'n v. Reilly, 970 F.2d 1287 (4th Cir. 1992) (court of appeals found that EPA had not abused its discretion); Sugarloaf Citizens Ass'n v. Federal Energy Regulatory Comm'n, 959 F.2d 508 (4th Cir. 1992) (court of appeals affirmed FERC decision); Communities, Inc. v. Busey, 956 F.2d 619 (6th Cir.) (court of appeals affirmed FAA decision), cert. denied, 506 U.S. 953 (1992); Friends of Sierra R.R. v. Interstate Commerce Comm'n, 881 F.2d 663 (9th Cir. 1989) (court of appeals dismissed petition for review of ICC decision), cert. denied sub nom. Tuolumne Park & Recreation Dist. v. Interstate Commerce Comm'n, 493 U.S. 1093 (1990); Illinois Commerce Comm'n v. Interstate Commerce Comm'n, 848 F.2d 1246 (D.C. Cir. 1988) (court of appeals upheld ICC order), cert. denied, 488 U.S. 1004 (1989); Connecticut Trust for Historic Preservation v. Interstate Commerce Comm'n, 841 F.2d 479 (2d Cir. 1988) (court of appeals denied petition for review of ICC decision).

{428} Ely v. Velde (Ely II), 497 F.2d 252 (4th Cir. 1974).

{429} Warm Springs Dam Task Force v. Gribble, 378 F. Supp. 240 (N.D. Cal. 1974).

Go to Table of Contents Go to Top